would appear to depend rather upon the long-range field-guns, firing shrapnel, than upon machine-guns proper, which are hopelessly outranged.

McKay', Alexander Charles, principal of McMaster University, Toronto, was born in Beamsville, Ontario, in 1861. He attended Grimsby High School and London Collegiate Institute, and graduated atToronto University in 1885, winning a gold medal. He was a teacher in public and in high schools, and was fellow in physics in the University of Toronto (1887). He was appointed professor of mathematics in McMaster University (Baptist) in 1890, was made dean in 1901 and chancellor in 1905. He is joint-author of the high-school arithmetic exclusively authorized for Ontario for 15 years. He now is Chancellor of McMaster University. See McMaster University.

McKees'port, Pa., a city in Allegheny County, southwestern Pennsylvania, the center of an extensive bituminous coal-trade and commerce in natural gas, which abounds in the region. It is situated ten miles southeast of Pittsburg, on the Monon-gahela River at the mouth of the Yough-iogheny, on the Baltimore and Ohio, Pennsylvania and Pittsburg and Lake Erie railroads. It has a large number of manufacturing industries, among them being the largest wrought-iron pipe-works on the continent, with ample capital and employing over 6,000 hands. There are establishments engaged in the manufacture of iron and steel, locomotives, railroad cars, glass works and lumber mills. The city also has considerable river-trade. Population, which has of late largely increased, 42,694.

McKen'na, Joseph, an American lawyer and jurist, was born at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 10, 1843. At 12 he removed to California with his parents. He was educated at the College of St. Augustine, Benicia, studying law after his graduation and being admitted to the bar in 1865. He was soon elected county-attorney of Solano County, and in 1875 was sent to the legislature. Although twice defeated for Congress, he ran again in 1884 and was elected, serving four consecutive terms. During his life in Congress he was an intimate friend of Mr. McKinley and assisted in framing the Mc-Kinley tariff (1890). He succeeded Judge Sawyer upon the circuit bench of the Pacific slope in 1892, appointed by President Harrison, and remained there until called by President McKinley to a seat in his cabinet as attorney-general. In 1897 he was appointed to the supreme court, succeeding Justice Field.

Mackenzie (m-kĕn'z), Alexander, a Canadian statesman, was born near Dun-keld, Scotland, Jan. 28. 1822. He moved to Canada in 1842, engaging in business as a contractor until 1861, when he was

elected to the assembly, remaining until the formation of the Dominion parliament, to which he was also elected, representing the same constituency for 25 years. He was offered a seat in the Canadian cabinet in 1865, but declined it. Upon the resignation of Sir John Mac-donald he became premier of the Dominion and minister of public works. Upon the election of a Conservative majority to parliament in 1878, he, with his cabinet, resigned his position. At various times he visited his native country and was treated everywhere with distinction, being offered knighthood three times; but each time he declined the honor. Possessed of great ability as an administrator and splendid gifts as an orator, his influnce throughout the Dominion is still felt. He died at Toronto, April 17, 1892.

Mackenzie, Sir Morell, was born in 1837 at Leytonstone, England, and studied at London Hospital Medical College, at Paris and at Vienna. In 1863 he founded the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat at London, and his essay on Diseases of the Larynx won the Jacksonian prize from the Royal College of Surgeons. He attended Emperor Frederick III of Germany (1888) during his last illness, and pulished The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble in vindication of his treatment. He was a corresponding member of the Imperial Royal Society of Physicians of Vienna and of the Medical Society of Prague and an honorary fellow of the American Laryngological Association. He was the author of a systematic treatise on Diseases of the Throat and Nose, which has been translated into French and German and is well-known in America. He died on Feb. 3, 1892, after an illness of only a few days.

Mackenzie River. Starting at Great Slave Lake in Mackenzie District this river runs north to the Arctic Ocean, 2,400 miles. It is one of the eight largest rivers in the world, a tremendous stream, from two to four miles in width its whole length. It is navigable all the way except at the mouth, where it spreads into a great many branches, and like all rivers of the kind has short bars which would require dredging. Navigation would be practicable for five months of the year. Its source is in Central Alberta. It drains a greater territory than that drained by the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence. The trees in the basin throw out their leaves about the middle of May before the ice leaves the river. Some steamboats have been plying

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