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successfully for years on stretches of the Mackenzie, Peace, Liard and Athabasca Rivers. Before a committee of the senate in 1906 the striking fact was elicited that, by the construction of two tramways of an aggregate length of 20 miles, a continuous water-and-rail route of 3,000 miles, the longest inland water-route in the world, can be provided.

Mackenzie, District of, lies east of the Rocky Mountains, between the northern boundary of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the Arctic Ocean. It includes the Mackenzie River and its lakes, and has a length of Ŏ20 miles from south to north. The summer is short and hot, the winter long and cold. Vegetables grow at points along the Mackenzie to the Arctic Circle, and wheat is grown every year at Providence Mission on the Mackenzie about 620 N. At present practically the only trade is in furs. This trade is carried on by the great system which includes the Mackenzie, Athabasca, Peace and Liard Rivers and Athabasca, Great Slave and Great Bear Lakes. The railroad base of the trade is Edmonton, capital of Alberta. Fish of the finest quality abound in many lakes. Whalefishing is carried on at the mouth of the Mackenzie by vessels which enter the Arctic by Bering Straits. Coal, salt, copper and silver lead are found, as is much valuable timber, but owing to the lack of railways there is no development. The area is about half a million square miles.

Mackenzie, William Lyon, was born in Dundee, Scotland, in 1795, came to Canada in 1820, and edited The Colonial Advocate in 1824, in which he criticised the government and was greatly disliked by the official party. A mob destroyed his printing-office in 1826, a foolish act which gave him increased influence. In 1828 he obtained a seat in Parliament. His newspaper criticisms continued, and the government party on the plea of breach of privilege attempted to expel him from the Legislature. He was five times expelled and as often re-elected. He went to England in 1832 to make known his grievances, and the imperial government condemned these arbitrary proceedings. A man of great force and influence, he became Toronto's first mayor in 1836. He was prominent in the rebellion of 1837 and 1838. Misjudged as he was in this matter, great good came to the people. At different times he endured poverty and imprisonment, and was the only Canadian refugee to whom an amnesty was refused. .Returning to Canada he was elected for Haldimand County in 1850, resigning in 1858. His public honor and integrity were never questioned.

Mack'erel, an important food-fish of the North Atlantic from Cape Hatteras to Labrador and Newfoundland. It is steel-

blue above with dark bars, and silvery beneath. They attain a length of 17 or 18 inches or even longer; but the average length of those caught for the whole coast is about 12 inches. Their food is small Crustacea, the spawn and young of other fishes, and jellyfish. They occur in large schools, and many vessels of fine modern construction are engaged in the mackerel fishery. They are caught with hooks and lines and with nets. They are salted and very extensively eaten. In 1898 the market price of those landed at Boston and Gloucester amounted to nearly three million dollars.

Mackinaw or Mackinac (mäk'ĭ-na), an island three miles long and two broad in the Strait of Mackinaw, which connects Lakes Huron and Michigan. The village on the island is the seat of Mackinaw County and a fashionable summer resort. Fort Mackinaw is situated on a rocky eminence, overlooking the village and commanding the strait. Population 800.

McKin'Iey, William, twenty-fourth president of the United States, was born at Niles, O., Jan. 29, 1843. He was educated at public schools, Poland Academy and Allegheny College. For a short time he taught school, but in the first summer of the Civil War, when but 18 he enlisted as a private. Next year he was made second lieutenant ; the following year first lieutenant ; and captain in 1864. He was brevetted major by President Lincoln for gallantry in the field on March 13, 1865. He served on the staffs of Generals Rutherford B. Hayes, George Crook and Winfield Scott Hancock. When mustered out, July 26, 1865, he was assistant adjutant-general, 1st division, 1st army-corps. He began the study of law; took a course at Albany (N. Y.) Law School; was admitted to the bar in 1867; and settled at Canton, O. Being elected to Congress in 1876, he served continuously in the house until March, 189t. As chairman of the committee on ways and means, he reported to Congress the tariff bill of 1890, known since as the McKinley bill, taking advanced ground in favor of a high tariff. He was elected governor of the state in 1891, and re-elected in 1893. In 189 6 he was nominated for president by the Republicans and was elected, receiving in the electoral college 271 votes against 176 for William J. Bryan. The issue that year was free coinage of silver, Mr. Mc-

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