This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 3" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.

MANUAL TRAINING

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MANUAL TRAINING

ground clay, a pair of scissors, a few skeins of colored worsted, a few skeins of carpet-yarn for weaving mats, a few sheets of perforated figure-papers, a few pounds of raffia for weaving baskets, a paper of large needles and six weaving-needlps.

Thp object of stick-laying is to teach spacing, design, arrangement and orderliness. The paper-folding gives practice in the simplest hand-movements and in the use of the inch-measurement. Tracing on the back of the colored papers over the creases gives practice in precision and accuracy. Working out figures with worsted in perforated paper helps to fix forms and co-ordinates eye-pictures and finger-movements. Clay-modeling develops the idea of form and cultivates the sense of touch. The weaving serves many of these purposes and in the succeeding grades makes an excellent introduction to industrial occupations.

The course is arranged for two 15-minute periods per week; one in clay-modeling and one in stick-laying or paper-folding.

The work is planned for 23 weeks; the numbers refer to the number of week, and the letter to the lesson.

1. (a) After conversation on the sphere, model the sphere, using fingers only.

(b) Measure side of four-inch red square.

2. (a) Model a spherical object.

(b) Lay red sticks to form a border illustrating repetition.

3. (a) Model a spherical object.

(b) Measure side of four-inch orange square. Fold, making a diameter. Teach diameter. Measure distance from end of diameter to corner. Fold, forming a diameter at right angles to the first diameter. Trace on the back of paper over the creases, making a cross.

4. (a) Model a cube.

(b) Lay orange-colored sticks to illustrate repetition of twos.

5. (a) Model a cubical object.

(b) Fold a four-inch yellow square so as to form 16 one-inch squares. Measure the squares. Trace on back of paper over the creases.

6. (a) Model a cubical object.

(b) Lay yellow sticks illustrating the repetition by threes.

7. (a) Model an isometric cylinder.

(b) Fold a green square to form a diagonal. Fold to form a diagonal at right angles to the first. Make six folds parallel to one of the diagonals, making equal spaces. Trace on the back of paper over the creases.

8. (a) Model an isometric cylindrical object.

(b) Lay green sticks to illustrate alternation.

9. (a) Model an isometric cylindrical object.

(b) Fold blue square same as in les on 7(b) and in addition fold six creases parallel to the other diagonal, thus forming small

squares. Trace over some of the creases to make a design, which shall be symmetrical.

10. (a) Model a cylindrical object with rounded ends.

(b) Lay blue sticks to illustrate oblique alternation.

11. (a) Model an object like cylinder, (b) Fold a violet square as in lesson 9(b)

and trace pin-wheel design on creases. ' 12. (ct) Model an object like cylinder.

(b) Lay violet sticks in design as a modification of 10(b).

13. (a) Model a sphere and bisect it with a string.

(b) Fold red square as 9(b) and trace symmetrical design on creases.

14. (a) Model a hemispherical object, (b) Lay red sticks to form a Greek border. 15.(a) Model a hemispherical object.

(b) Fold a diameter in an orange square. Make six folds parallel to the first diameter Form the same number of folds at right angles to the first set, thus making 64 quarter-inch squares. Draw a symmetrical design by tracing over the creases.

16. (a) Model a square prism and bisect across corners, forming a triangular prism.

(b) Lay orange sticks to illustrate alternation.

17. (a) Model a square prismatic object, (b) Fold a diagonal in a yellow square and

also seven creases parallel to it. Fold a set at right angles to the first. Draw symmetrical design on creases.

18. (a) Model a triangular prismatic object.

(b) Form a flag with three yellow sticks.

19. (a) Model a cylinder and bisect it. (b) Draw the diameters and diagonals on

the back of a blue square. Connect the end of the diameters in such a way as to form a square. Cut on the lines with scissors, making 16 right-angled triangles.

20. (a) Model a hemicylindrical object, (b) Make two borders using eight triangles

of lesson 19(b) and blue sticks. These may be mounted.

21. (a) Model a hemicylindrical object, (b) Draw on back of blue square two sets

of parallel lines at right angles to each other, forming t6 one-inch squares. Cut with scissors.

22. (a) Model cylinder with rounded ends. Bisect it.

(b) Arrange seven squares of lesson 21(b) in borders.

23. (a) Model a hemicylindrical object. (b) Make a design of blue triangles — of

lesson 19(b) — and blue squares — of lesson 21(b).

The knife and a few other simple tools are introduced as the work advances, and habits of originality, accuracy, precision and speed are inculcated throughout the course. The views of specimens of work done in grades seven and eight show how the skill of the pupil develops through the years.