MANUEL II                                               II5                                                             MAP

All of the work for the grades can be done on the ordinary school-desks, though, as a few heavier tools may be introduced in the seventh grade, benches will then be needed. In the high school the work properly differentiates into certain specific lines for the boys and for the girls. Work-benches, full sets of tools, lathes, scroll-saws etc. are needed for the heavier work for the former; sewing-tables or kitchen furniture, depending upon the direction the instruction takes, for the latter. Tables and tools in common can be used for clay-modeling, bent-iron work, wood-carving etc.

Ma'nuel (ma'no-al) II of Portugal was born on November 15th, 1889, and became king on February 1st, 1908, in consequence of the assassination of the king and the crown-prince. (See Carlos I.) He was the favorite son, and is reported to possess more ability than the older brother. He was trained for the navy, and is well-educated. Personally he is popular, but he is much more closely in touch with the court-circles than was the late crown-prince, and his reign opened with a return to the constitutional principles and parliamentary methods from which King Carlos and Premier Franco had departed.

Manures' either are stable-manures or green-crop, manures, i.e., crops not harvested but plowed under. "Compost" sometimes refers to stable-manure in the pile, and sometimes to other farm-litter, as leaves, straw, swamp-muck and road-dust piled up to undergo a rotting process. Stable-manure is a "complete" fertilizer, i.e., it contains all the elements needed by plants. (See Fertilizers.) It is worth from $2.50 to $4.25 a ton, as reckoned by the market-value of its 10 pounds of nitrogen, 10 of potash and 5 of phosphoric acid. Mature animals return nearly all the fertilizing elements of their food, and the computed value of the waste is often nearly half the cost of the food (Roberts). But its chief value is in its effect on the physical nature of the soil, for its decay adds humus. This makes clay lighter, giving it greater water-capacity and better ventilation, and makes sand more retentive of water. The decay also brings about beneficial chemical changes in the minerals of the soil. Careful observations show that the exposed manure loses most of its valuable plant-foods by leaching and that horse-manure loses in value over $1 a ton during the summer through heating and fermentation. Stable-manure should be kept protected from rain till spread on the field. Plenty of litter or bedding should absorb valuable, liquid plant-food. Mixing the drier horse-manure with the colder manures of other stock will lessen the loss referred tc. Green manuring crops are used to return to the soil not only the food taken from the top soil, but that taken from the deeper soil

by the roots, with the added advantage of adding humus. Green manuring crops are most economically managed when worked in between other crops, as in the late summer and fall. The leguminous plants, being nitrogen-gathering (a.v.), have the double value of being deep-rooted and of adding nitrogen from the air. The mos' generally used nonleguminous crops 10: green manuring are rye, a winter crop, and buckwheat, as both can use plant-food too tough for many crops, and so make X usable; wheat, oats and rape are also used. The clovers, especially red clover, are thu most widely used plants for this purpose in the United States, while the cowpea (a.v.) is the most important in the south, being often planted after oats are harvested in the spring and in between the cotton-rows. See Bulletins of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture and of state experiment-stations.

Man without a Country, The, a story published in The Atlantic Monthly, December, 1863, is a powerful story by Edward Everett Hale. Philip Nolan had been "as fine a young officer as there was in the Legion of the West, as the western division of our army was then called." But he was fascinated by Aaron Burr, involved in his treason, and tried. In a frenzy he cursed the United States in open court, wishing that he might never hear the name again. From this time forth Nolan was a man without a country, for the sentence of the court was that he never should hear the name United States more. He was sent upon long cruises, and during 20 long years never got within a hundred miles of his country. At first he is said to have shown some braggadocio; but he died repentant enough, leaving this epitaph for himself: "He loved his country as no other man has loved her; but no man deserved less at her hands."

Manzoni (măn-z'ne), Alessandro, a great Italian novelist and poet of the romantic school, was born at Milan, March 7, 1785, of a noble family. He published his first poems in 1806; sacred lyrics and two tragedies, one highly praised by Goethe, followed; but the work which gave Manzoni European fame was his historical novel, / Promessi Sposi or The Betrothed Lovers, a Milanese story f the 17th century, powerful and interesting from its sketches of Italian life and customs and, especially, for the account of the plague in Milan. His famous ode of II Cinque Maggio or The Five Great Ones was inspired by the death of Napoleon. He died at Milan on May 22, 1873.

Map, a drawing on a plane of the surface of the earth. As the earth is a sphere, it cannot be exactly represented on a plane or' level surface, and various methods have been adopted to do away with the diffi-