MARSH                                                       "77                                             MARSUPIALS

Marsh, George Perkins, an American philologist and diplomat, was born at Woodstock, Vermont, March 15, 1801, and died at Vallombrosa, Italy, July 24, 1882. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1820, studied law, and was chosen to the supreme executive council of Vermont in 1835. From 1842 to 1849 he was a member of Congress. While American minister to Constantinople during 1849-53, he was sent on a special mission to Greece. In 18Ŏ1 he was appointed the first minister from the United States to Italy. His lectures on English philology at Columbia College and Lowell Institute in Boston put him in the front rank of philologists. _ Among his books are Lectures on the English Language, The Origin and History of the English Language, Man and Nature and The Earth as Modified by Human Action. See Life and Letters by Mrs. Marsh.

Mar'shall, John, chief-justice of the United States, was born in Fauquier County, Va., Sept. 24, 1755. His law-studies were interrupted by the Revolution, and he served in the army under his father from 1775 to 1779. In 1781 he began to practice law, and soon rose to the head of the Virginian bar. He was a member of the Virginian house of burgesses, the state legislature and the state convention that adopted the constitution. He was sent to France with Pinckney and Gerry as envoys in 1797, and with Pinckney was ordered to leave the country when they had declined Tallyrand's request for a loan. In 1799 he was elected to Congress, and in 1800 became secretary of state. He was made chief-justice of the United States in 1801, holding his position till his death on July 6, 1835. His decisions are considered authoritative on all matters of constitutional law. He wrote a Life of Washington. See Life by Magruder in the American Statesmen Series.

Mar'shalltown, the county-seat of Marshall County, la., near Iowa River, 50 miles northeast of Des Moines, with a large trade in grain. It also has foundries, machine-shops and manufactories of soap, flour, oil and wire-fencing, furnaces, engines, scales, brick and tile. Besides, it has a pork-pack-ery. Population 12,100.

Marsh'mallow, a class of plants with showy flowers, natives of Europe and Asia. The common marshmallow grows in salt

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JOHN MARSHALL

marshes on our eastern coast. The whole plant is wholesome, abounding in fiber, mucilage, starch and sugary matter, though the mucilage is chiefly in the roots. The famous confection, marshmallow paste, is made from the roots. The plant is a close relative of the hollyhock, bushy and leafy, and grows to a height of from two to four feet. The downy leaves are broad, alternate, ovate or heart-shaped. The flowers grow in clusters and are of a pale rose-color, blooming in August and September.

Mar'ston Moor, an historic plain, seven miles west of York, England, was the scene of a great victory of the parliamentary forces on July 2, 1644 over the royalist army of Charles I in the Civil War. Twenty -two thousand royalists were led by Prince Rupert. The parliamentary troops were under the Earl of Manchester, Cromwell and Crawford, in all 15,000 foot and 9,000 horse. The royalists fled, leaving 4,000 men dead on the field. This victory gave the whole north to the parliament, and first brought Cromwell into notice. See S. R. Gardiner's History of the Civil War.

Mar'ston, Philip Bourke, one of the best-known of the younger late-day English poets, was born at London in 1850. Philip was a pretty child, and it was to him that his godmother, the author of John Halifax, addressed her well-known poem beginning :

Look at me with thy large brown eyes, Philip, my king.

Yet those handsome eyes went out into utter darkness, the result of a blow on one of them, got in a baby romp when Philip was but three. The blind boy began to write when he had hardly left off his bibs. At his father's house he met and well knew Browning, Swinburne, Dickens, Miss Muloch, Rossetti and many others. When of age his first book was published, Song Tide, sung in praise of his sweetheart. Three years later appeared his second book, ^411 in All, telling of his great grief for the death of this same betrothed. His last volume, Wind Voices, is considered his best. Mar-ston's poetry has pleased readers and critics alike, and much of it will live and be remembered. Marston died on Feb. 13, 1887.

Marsupials (mar-su'pt-als), an order of the class Mammalia, embracing animals with a pouch or marsupium for containing the young. The pouch is a fold of skin on the ventral surface of the body. The young are born in a very rudimentary condition, and are attached to the nipples of the breasts shielded by the pouch. They are of limited geographical range, but formerly, as shown by fossils, occurred in nearly all parts of the globe. All except the opossum belong to the Australian region. The opossum lives in South America and the southern part of the United States. Besides opossums the principal kinds of marsupials are kau-