MARTEN                                                    "78                                                   MARTIAL

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garoos, wombats, native bears, bandicoots, Tasmanian devils and pouched dogs.

Mar'ten ( măr'ten ), the common name for a number of closely related animals widely-known on account of their fur. All belong to the genus Mustela. Besides fur bearing the name of marten, all sables come from these animals. They are abun-dant in the northern portion of the Old and New Worlds. They have long, slender bodies and short legs, and live mostly on trees. They run about upon the trees, leaping from one to another, much like squirrels. Their outer fur is long and glossy, and they have abundant, soft, under-fur. The Asiatic sable furnishes the celebrated sable, one of the best furs. "A single skin of a Russian crown sable with its natural, dark, bloomy black will fetch $200. Of such, a muff and boa would be worth $2,000, but sets of inferior quality may be bought for $250." The best skins come from Yakutsk, Kamchatka and Russian Lapland. The skins are in their best condition from November to January. In North America there are two species of marten, with a variety of local names. The pine-marten or American sable, similar to the pine-marten of Europe, is about the size of the large house-cat, with soft, deep fur of rich brown, lighter-colored below, a tawny spot on the throat. It is fond of forests far from the habitation of man, and shows special liking for pine-trees. Its range is the northern woods, but even there it now is rare. It feeds upon birds and animals. It multiplies rapidly, there being six kittens to a litter. For a nest it often makes use of one deserted by woodpeckers or squirrels; snuggling in the soft lining with only its head emerging, it looks out with alert inquisitiveness upon what is going on. The black marten, black fox, fisher or pekan, as it is variously called, is the largest of the group, being from two to three feet long with a tail one foot. It has no immediate relatives in the Old World. In color it is grayish-brown with dark markings, has a bushy tail tipped with black. It is bold, strong and aggressive, a skilful hunter; it kills bear-cubs and the Canadian porcupine. It is successful in stealing bait from traps, and is a nuisance to trappers. Its fare includes dead fish, rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, ground birds, snakes, frogs and toads, and it relishes beechnuts and catnip. This largest of our martens, too, belongs to the northern woods, occurs southward in the Alleghanies, and shows preference for

regions of hemlock and spruce. The stone-marten is another variety, with hair inclined to grayish and pure white on the breast.

Mar'tha. Opera in three acts, music by Friedrich Freiherr von Flotow (1812-1883). Remodelled from a ballet and first produced in Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847, whence its fame spread all over the world. A prominent feature of the opera is the introduction of the air, The Last Rose of Summer. Von Flotow's greatest success was achieved in Martha and Stradella, its predecessor. His work is light and melodious, enlivened by flashes of «omedy and lively rhythms, more akin to the French than the German school, but devoid of qualities that insure permanence. The scene is laid at Richmond, England, in the time of Queen Anne, though the Italian version places it in the fifteenth century and the French in the nineteenth.

Mar'tha's Vine'yard, an island off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts, is 21 miles long and six wide, and forms Dukes County, Mass. It was discovered by Gosnold in 1602, and named by him; settled in 1642 by an English merchant; and from 1664 to 1692 belonged to New York. It has a lighthouse on Gayhead, and is popular as a summer resort. The chief towns are Edgar-town, Cottage City, Vineyard Haven and Tisbury. The island is separated from Nantucket by Muskeget Channel.

Mar'tial Law is an arbitrary rule which may supersede municipal or state law by the sanction of the executive instead of the legislative power. A state of martial law may be declared in America "by the president in time of danger; and it is generally held that the president is the sole judge whether the danger is sufficiently great to justify the proclamation of martial law. The hostile occupation of a territory necessarily involves a state of martial law, until the commander-in-chief removes this state by proclamation. Martial law is not exactly military law, which has a sanction and limits under the constitution; it is a temporary suspension of constitutional law. The American constitution provides that the principle of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless the general welfare, as in cases of rebellion or invasion, may demand it. This is an indirect admission that martial law may be necessary in certain cases. Martial law may be more or less stringent according to necessity. It is usually administered by military courts; but th proclamation is sometimes made that civil and criminal cases shall be tried according to the customary principles of administration. In the United States the principal test of martial law occurred in connection with the war and reconstruction in the south (See Reconstruction in the So th).

Mar'tial, Marcus Valerius Martialis, one of the finest among the few Latin poets