MONONGAHELA

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monsoon

stem, in which the woody bundles are scattered, as in the common corn; the parallel-veined leaves, and the members of the flowers in threes. Monocotyledons were once called endogens, an antiquated name which has been entirely abandoned. Prominent monocotyledonous groups are as follows : Pond-weeds, among which are the numerous more or less submerged aquatics and closely-allied forms, and related to which are the well-known forms of arrowleaf and cattail flag ; grasses, one of the largest and most useful groups of plants, much confused with the nearly allied sedges; palms, a group of tree monocotyledons very characteristic of the tropics; aroids, an immense tropical group represented in temperate regions by skunk-cabbage and Jack-in-the-Pulpit and in cultivation by the better known calla lily; lilies, associated with which are the numerous amaryllis and iris forms; and orchids, which in number of species are most numerous among the monocotyledons and favorites in greenhouse cultivation on account of their brilliant color and bizarre forms.

Monongahela (mō-nŏn'gĺ-hē'lá), a river, one of the sources of the Ohio, rises in West Virginia, flowing north into Pennsylvania where it unites with the Allegheny at Pittsburg and forms the Ohio. It is 250 miles long, and is navigable for about 80 miles for large boats. Cheat River and the Youghio-gheny are its chief branches. Here, on the banks of the river, near Pittsburg, was fought, July 9, 1755, a battle between the French and the Indians and the British and colonial troops under Braddock, The latter were beaten.

Monop'oly, a term nsed to indicate the sole right to sell or trade in any article, given to a single person or to a group of persons. In early times this right was often granted by government, as in the time of Queen Elizabeth, salt and coal were articles whose sale was thus limited ; and one of the greatest monopolies the world has ever known, the East India Company, received its charter at that time. These government monopolies were opposed by the English people, and finally ended. Monopolies, under their modern form of trusts, combines, syndicates or unions, are the same in principle, an effort to do away with competition and give to one set or class of persons the sole right of selling or trading in an article. These combinations are effected by the use of capital, which is employed to drive out of business all small dealers. The Standard Oil Company and the Reading coal "combine" are well-known instances of great American monopolies.

Monroe', James, the fifth president of the United States, was born in Westmoreland County, Va., April 28, 1758. He entered William and Mary College, but soon left to join the army under Washington. He was in several battles, was wounded at Trenton, and became lieutenant-colonel and military

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JAMES MONROE

commissioner. In 1782, after studying law with Jefferson, he became a member of the Virginia assembly and was sent the next year to Congress. Here his services were influential in bringing about the conventions at Annapolis and Philadelphia, where the Constitution of the United States was framed, which, however, he opposed in the Virginia convention, siding with Patrick Henry and other states' rights men. He was in the United States senate from 1790 to 1794, and became minister to France from 1794 to 1796, when he was recalled because of his too open expressions of sympathy with the Revolution. His former opposition to Washington and this treatment induced him to publish an attack on the government, which made him the favorite of the Democratic party. He was governor of Virginia for three years, and then was sent by Jefferson to France, where, with Robert Morris, he effected the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. His efforts for a cession of Florida by Spain were unsuccessful, and the treaty with England obtained by him failed to provide against the seizing of American sailors. In 1811 he again was governor of Virginia, and secretary of state under Madison until 1817. In 1816 he was elected président and reelected in 1820. The most popular measures of his administration were the obtaining of Florida from Spain (1819), the settling of the slavery question by the Missouri Compromise, the recognition of the independence of the Spanish American republics and the announcement of what is known as the Monroe Doctrine. In a message to Congress approving the bill which recognized the South American republics Monroe declared that "the American continents are not to be considered as subjects for colonization by any European power." This declaration, known as the Monroe Doctrine, has ever since held a place as well in the diplomacy as in the political creed of the nation. After his retirement to his home in Virginia he became involved in debt, but found a home with his son-in-law in New York, where he died, July 4, 1831. See Life, by Gilman, in the American Statesmen Series.

Monroe Doctrine. See Monroe, James, and United States.

Monsoon', a term meaning a set time or season, formerly used to indicate the winds prevailing in the Indian Ocean, blowing from the southwest from April to October and from the northeast from October to April. The word is used now of all winds that are regular, returning with the seasons. The prevailing winds of North America are