MONTAGU

1254

MONTANA

largely of this class, and there are monsoons in Australia and on the coasts of Brazil, Peru and North Africa. See Winds.

Montagu (mŏrt-gū), Mary Wortley, was born about 1689 m Nottinghamshire, England. When only eight years old her father introduced her to the famous Kit-Cat Club, of which she became a member. After her marriage her husband's public position brought her into court society in London, where she was celebrated for her wit and beauty, and numbered among her friends Addison, Pope and other literary men of the time. In 1716 her husband was English ambassador at Constantinople, and during her life there of two years she wrote the Letters that have made he'r famous, addressing them to her sister, to Pope and other friends. They are descriptions of eastern life and manners. She became convinced of the benefit of inoculation for smallpox while abroad, and introduced it into England, trying it first on her own son. She died on Aug. 21, 1762. Sec Life in the edition of her works by Whs ,-~cliffe.

Montaigne (mŏn-tān'), Michel Eyquem de, a famous French essayist, was born in 1533 in Perigord. His father had peculiar ideas of education, and pu'; them in practice in his son's case. He was nursed by a poor woman in a village, that he might learn simple habits of living and sympathy with the poor. That his boyhood might be made as happy as possible, he had him wakened every morning by the sound of music. As he must learn Latin, then the necessary foundation of all education, he had him taught it in the easiest way, by conversation, and until he was six he understood no other language. His father sent him to school at six, making various arrangements to carry out his plans of education. He studied law, and became a city counselor, holding the office for 13 years. His first literary work was a translation of a Spanish Natural History. On the death of his brothers he succeeded to the family estate, and here began his famous Essays, which were written simply because he felt the need of occupation. These essays, written apparently without any plan, inspired by the caprice of the moment, touching upon his daily life, habits, tastes and thoughts on all kinds of subjects, have held the attention of a large class of readers of all kinds and sorts for 300 years. The circle of admirers widens every year, and is almost equal to that composed of the followers of Shakespeare. He died in 1592. See Representative Men by Emerson and Montaigne by Collins.

Montana (mŏn-t'nă), one of the northwestern states of the Union, is the third in size, coming next to Texas and California, covering a surface of 145,310 square miles and being larger than the British ;sla«ds.

It is bounded on the north by Canada, south by Wyoming and Idaho, east by the Dako-tas and west by Idaho.

Surface. The Rocky Mountain region in the west includes one fifth of the state, while the east is dry, rolling plains, needing irrigation to make them productive. The mountainous part rises from 8,000 to 11,000 feet high, with high valleys and passes, but the eastern plains are lower than Colorado or Wyoming, so that the climate is somewhat milder. The dry regions have already been improved by canals and reservoirs built by private enterprise. The Bad Lands, as they are called, near Yellowstone River, have a peculiar soft, sticky soil, in which animals sink at every footstep. The Rocky Mountains cross the state for 300 miles, with numerous smaller ranges and fertile valleys.

Drainage. The Missouri flows 1,300 miles in Montana, and Clark's Fork of Columbia River runs north into Idaho, their sources being scarcely a mile apart. Through a great canon, cut for five miles through a gorge from 600 to 4,000 feet deep; past Bear Tooth Mountain, 2,500 feet high; by the Long Pool, with its strange, booming noises; over the Great Falls, where, in four separate descents in 15 miles, its waters fall 450 feet; and through five miles of rapids the Missouri River makes its way. The Yellowstone, rising in the National Park, crosses the entire state for 850 miles. There are many mountain lakes and numerous mineral springs. The Warm Springs are near the wigwam-shaped geyser, with its smoke ascending like a council fire, in Deer Lodge Valley. Near Helena the hot springs have created a resort for invalids and tourists, with one of the largest bathhouses known and a very fine hotel.

Climate. The climate is variable, with sudden changes and scanty rainfall east of the mountains, while in the northwest the rainfall is more ample and the climate made milder by the great, warm current from Japan. The chinook winds also have a great effect on the climate. These warm winds may occur in any part of the state, making the air very mild, and melting large quantities of snow in a short time. Because of the absence of humidity the climate is very healthful, and especially beneficial to those affected with pulmonary trouble.

Minerals. The greatest wealth of the state is mineral, and its foremost industry is mining. About one third of the gold, silver, copper and lead mined in the United States is from Montana. The first gold was discovered in 1852, but little was done in mining until 1861, the mines now producing enormous quantities and bringing great wealth to their owners. Silver, lead and copper are also mined, these, with gold, producing in one year nearly $70,000,000.