N                                                                  1298                                            NANA SAHIB


N (ěn), the fourteenth letter, is a voiced consonant. It is sounded through the nose while the tongue touches the upper front teeth, and is therefore classed as a den-tonasal or linguanasal. It also is a liquid and even a semivowel. When n is followed by a guttural, they form one nasal, as in ring, or the n becomes more nasal and the guttural keeps its own sound, as in rink. If n and the following guttural belong to different syllables, n usually remains n, as in engage. Its commonest sound occurs in done, nasal, ran, but when followed by k or hard g, n becomes the ng of sing, as in sink, single. N preceded by 1 or m at the end of a word is silent, as in kiln, hymn.

Nadir (na'dr), an Arabic word used by astronomers to denote the point just opposite the zenith. The zenith being the point immediately over head, the nadir might be defined as the point immediately under foot. A plumb-bob suspended by a string always points to the nadir and to the zenith, at the same time.

Nagasaki (n-g-s'ke), a seaport town of Japan, for two centuries was the only harbor in the kingdom open to the world. In 1859 it became one of the five open ports. Its harbor is a beautiful inlet, of over three miles, having, near its head, the island of Deshima, which from 1637 to 1859 was the trading-post and prison-house of the Dutch traders. The great Takashima coal-mine on an island eight miles seaward, makes Nagasaki an important coaling-station. Its imports (besides tea and raw silk) include rice, textiles, porcelain and lacquer-ware. The foreign settlement is on the east side of the harbor. The city has English, American and Dutch missions and a community of native Christians. Population 153,293.

Nagoya (n'g-yă), one of the largest and commercially active cities of Japan, the chief town of the province of Owari, lies at the head of the shallow Owari Bay, about 30 miles from its port, with which it communicates by means of light-draught steamers. It is one of the largest seats for pottery-works, and turns out large quantities of fans and enamels. Nagoya Castle, in about 400 acres of grounds north of the city, was built in 1610, and is the headquarters of the Nagoya military district. A superior court, middle school, girls' school, normal school, hospital, prefecture, telegraph and postofrices are the buildings of foreign style. Population 288,639.

Nagpur (ng'poor'), a city in British India and capital of the Central Provinces. It is a beautiful town, well-wooded, having attractive gardens and suburbs, but its high temperature makes it unhealthy. It manufactures fine cloth-fabrics and has a good trade in wheat, salt, spices and European goods. Here 1,350 British under Colonel Scott defeated 18,000 Mahrattas on Nov. 27, 1817. Population 127,734.

Na'hum, the seventh of the minor prophets His book is inscribed The Burden of Nineveh, the book of the vision of Nahum the Elko-shite. Students have dated this prophecy between the fall of Thebes (666 B. C), which is mentioned, and 606 B. C., the date of the destruction of Nineveh. Of Nahum's personal history nothing is known.

Nails. The making of nails by hand has been an established manufacture in Birmingham, England, for 300 years. Before the successful but very gradual introduction of machine-made nails, 60,000 men, women and children were engaged in the industry in that district. They all worked in small shops or sheds attached to their houses. In 1861 the number employed was only 20,-000, and nearly half were females. Handmade nails were supplanted by cut nails, which in turn have given way to wire nails, except for horseshoe nails. They are made by machinery from specially prepared steel wire. The wire is fed from a reel into a machine, and at each turn of the flywheel a nail is headed, pointed and cut off. The wire runs between rolls that straighten it and so cause the nails to be straight, and the length of the nail and the size of the head are made what is wanted. Five hundred small nails a minute can be made, or 125 large ones. Over 500,000 tons of wire are annually made into nails in the United States. New England is the center of American nailmaking; Taunton, Mass., the world's tackmaking center.

Nana Sahib (na'na sa'hb), the name applied to Dundhu Panth, the adopted son of a former ruler of the Mahrattas, when he led the Indian mutiny of 1857. He was born about 1825 and educated as a Hindu nobleman, but was active in stirring up dissatisfaction with English rule, and at the outbreak of the mutiny was proclaimed ruler and was directly responsible for the massacres at Cawnpore. After the suppression of the rebellion he fled to Nepal. The date of his death is unknown, probably i860.