NANAIMO                                                  1299                                               N ANTICOKE

Nanaimo (nă-n'mŏ), a city of 6,130 souls, lying on the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, is of great importance as a coaling-station, being the shipping port of the important mines near by. Nancy (nn'se'), capital of the French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, lies on the left bank of the Meurthe at the foot of the hills. It comprises both the old and new towns, and contains fine squares and beautiful buildings, among them the Htel-de-Ville, the bishop's palace, the theater and the churches Des Cordeliers, Ntre Dame de Bonsecours (1738) and St. Epvre. The statue of Stanislaus Leszcynski,kingof Poland, who lived here from 173 5 to 17 66 as Duke of Lorraine, stands in trie principal square. The city has manufactories of cotton and woolen goods, artificial flowers, iron etc., but its greatest industry is embroidery on cambric and muslin. From the 12th century it was the capital of the duchy of Lorraine; it also is the scene of the death of Charles the Bold, 1477, and the birthplace of Callot and Claude Lorraine. The town was occupied by the German army in 1870. Population 102,559. Nanking (nan'kn'), capital of the province of Kiangsu (and formerly of China), is situated on the Yangtse, 130 miles from its mouth. Since the removal of the capital to Peking, the official name has been Keang-ning-fu. When it was the capital of the Taiping rebels from 1853^0 1864, the latter destroyed the Porcelain tower, the summer palace, the tomb of the kings and all the other buildings for which it was famous, and also part of the walls, formerly 20 miles around and in some places 70 feet high. Since its recapture it has recovered a little. The manufacture of nankeen and satin has been resumed. It was captured by the English in 1842. In 1899 the Chinese government declared Nanking open to foreign trade. Population 270,000.

Nan'sen, Fridtjof (jret'yof năn'sen), a Norwegian Arctic explorer, was born near Christiana, Norway, Oct 10, 1861. When a i, he became curator of the zoological department of the museum at Bergen and devoted himself to its improvement. In a number of exploring expeditions he showed such fertility of resource and such physical endurance that he was given larger fields of operation. In 1882 he explored the seas about Greenland. In 1888-89

he crossed Greenland, passing over its icecap from east to west, and returned safe, contrary to the predictions of his critics. With his thoughts still on the problems of the polar seas he designed a boat in 1892 to withstand the effects of any ice-jam; and in this vessel, the Fram, he set out from Vard, Norway, in 1893, intending to reach the pole by sailing east until the right opportunity should offer for permitting his boat to be frozen into the ice pack. It was his belief that the pack itself would drift him across the polar sea. His surmises were in part correct. He attained the highest latitude north, but not within many leagues of the pole. He was not heard of again until Aug. 13, 1896, when his safe return was announced. His farthest north was about three degrees farther north (86° 14' N.) than the point attained by the Alert in 1876. His published works are Across Greenland, Eskimo Life and Farthest North. He lectured in the United States after his return from the polar expedition of 1893-96, upon which his chief distinction rests. Of late years he has been professor of zoology at Christiania University, and recently has acted as Norwegian ambassador to England.

Nantes (nnts, French nănt), the ninth largest city of France and capital of the department of. Loire-Infrieure, lies on the right bank of the Loire, 35 miles from its mouth. Demolished between 1865 and 1870, Nantes has grown by nature and by art to be one of the handsomest cities in France. Its unfinished cathedral (1434-1852) contains the celebrated monument to the duke and duchess of Brittany. Among its noteworthy buildings are the ducal castle, the occasional residence of Charles VIII and the place where, on April 13, 1598, Henry IV signed the famous Edict of Nantes; the Church of St. Nicholas, the palace of justice, the theater, postoffice, museum and library of 50,000 volumes. Nantes, the former capital of Brittany, is the scene of the marriage of Anne of Brittany to Louis XI (1499), the embarkation of theYoung Pretender (1745) and the arrest of the Duchess de Berfi (1832). Population 132,990. Nan'ticoke, Pa., a "borough of Luzerne County, on a branch of the Susquehanna and on the Central of New Jersey, Delaware, Lackawanna and Western and Pennsylvania railroads, 20 miles southwest of Scranton and eight miles from Wilkes-barre, the county-seat. A portion of the town, known as West Nanticoke, lies across the river in Plymouth township. Its chief industry is the shipping and hauling of coal, being in the anthracite coal-mining regions. The chief manufacturing establishments are mining and agricultural implements, flour and grist mills, lumber mills, cigar factories, a canning factory, hosiery mills, two silk-

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FRIDTJOF NANSEN