NANTUCKET

1300

NAPLES

throwing mills and a large knitting factory. Population 18,877.

Nantuck'et, an island off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts. It is about 15 miles long and much frequented as a summer-resort. The town lies on the north shore. It formerly was a great whale-fishing center. Population 2,962.

Naphtha (nfth or n&p'iha) is derived from a Persian word meaning to exude and was originally used to designate the liquid hydrocarbons that ooze from the ground about the Caspian Sea. It was also applied to the natural oils, found universally, and to the oil derived from the Boghead mineral in Scotland. But since the discovery of Scotch paraffine and American petroleum the name has been applied only to the lighter, explosive and unsafe oils and, strictly speaking, to the products of distillation from mineral oils, coal-tar, india-rubber, bones, peat and wood, the latter being known also as methylalcohol. Tetro-leum (American) contains from 15 to 20 per cent, of naphtha, which is separated into gasoline, benzine and benzoline. The tar derived from the reduction of coal yields from 5 to 20 per cent. The spirit obtained from the destructive distillation of india-rubber is called caoutchin. Bone-naphtha or Dippel's animal-oil is obtained by distillation of bones in the manufacture of animal charcoal.

Napier (nap'yr). Sir Charles James, a British general, the conqueror of Scinde, was born on Aug. 10, 1782, at London. Being commissioned in his 12th year, he served during the Irish rebellion, and, at the battle (Corunna) in which Sir John Moore died, he was five times wounded and taken prisoner. He served in 1811 in the Peninsula, where he took part at Coa, Busaco — where his jaw was broken and eye injured by a shot — Fuentes d'Onoro and Badajoz. He also took part in the Anglo-American War of 1812. In l8 18 he was made governor of Cephalonia; in 1838 a K. C. B.; and in 1841 was sent to India to command the army of Bombay against the Ameers of Scinde. Here his most remarkable feat was the destruction of the fortification of Emaun Ghur, 1843, followed by the battle of Meanee (Miani), where, with 2,080 English and Sepoys, he defeated 22,000 Baluchs. He died near Portsmouth, Aug. 29, 1853. See the biography by his brother and the short Life by Sir. W. Butler.

Napier, William Francis Patrick, K. C. B., brother of Sir Charles, was born near Dublin, Dec. 17, 1785. He served in the Peninsular campaign and retired as a lieutenant-general. He also wrote a famous History of the War in the Peninsula, The Conquest of Scinde and the Life of Sir Charles Napier. He died at Clapham, Lon-

don, Feb. 10, i860. See his Life and Letters, edited by Bruce.

Naples (na'p'lz), until 18Ŏ0 the capital of the kingdom of Naples, is the largest Italian city and one of the busiest ports, exporting wine, olive-oil, chemicals, perfumery, live animals, animal products, hemp, flax and cereals, and importing cereals, metals, cottons, woolens, earthenware, silks, groceries etc. The well-known proverb : "See Naples and die" originated on account of its attractiveness and delightful climate. Naples lies upon the base and sides of a hill-range rising from the sea and divided into two unequal parts. The most ancient part of the city, in the eastern crescent, is divided from north to south by its oldest street, Via Toledo (now Via di Roma), and is the most populous district of its size in Europe. Back of the wharf extending to Castel del Carmine lies the poorest and most densely-peopled quarter. The city is always full of life, the streets crowded and noisy. There are few buildings of any note, only the forts and gates, university, royal palace, catacombs, national museum and law-courts being worth a visit. It has three large libraries, the national, the university and the Brancacciana. The university, founded in 1224, has 81 professors, and 4,745 students. Population 563,540.

Naples, a former kingdom in southern Italy, owed its creation to Greek colonists, the two settlements, Palopolis and Neapo-lis, long existing as one community, Par-thenope. After the subjugation by Rome only Neapolis remained, and this became Rome's ally. After resisting Pyrrhus and Hannibal, it fell, by treachery, into the control of Sulla's friends, who murdered its people (82 B. C). Under the empire it became a famous residence place on account of its poets and its climate. After the fall of Rome it sided with the Goths, but was taken by Belisarius (536) and, six years after, by Totila. Soon afterwards the Byzantine emperors acquired it through Narses, and it was made the head of a duchy. As such it revolted and remained independent until conquered by the Normans in the nth century. In 1266 the popes gave the sovereignty of Naples to Charles of Anjou, but during the reign of Robert I the predominance of the papal party, the ravages of the Germans, the depravity of juana, Robert's heiress, and the unsuccessful attempts to recover Sicily were the only important events that marked the Angevin rule, which ended with Juana II in 1435. Then succeeded the Aragon rule. Between 1494 and 1504 France and Spain fought for the possession of Naples, but it was united with Sicily, forming the Two Sicilies, and was governed by Spanish viceroys down to 1707. In that year Austria wrested Naples from Spain only to give it in 1735 to Don Carlos, who founded the Bourbon rule. In