NEWCASTLE                                             1325                                   NEW HAMPSHIRE

11 million francs. It has a population of 53,350, of whom 30,650 are native Kanakas.

Newcastle, Pa., a manufacturing city located on Shenango River, 50 miles northwest of Pittsburg. The production of steel is the principal industry. Large blast furnaces, rolling mills, tin plate, wire and nail mills furnish employment for thousands of workmen. Glass, brick and paper are also manufactured. Population 36,280.

New Guinea or Papua {pă'poo-a), the second largest island in the world, lies 80 miles northeast of Queensland, Australia, at the southwest of the Pacific Ocean. Its length is 1490 miles, its greatest breadth 410, its estimated area over 312,000 square miles. Its population is estimated as 560,-000. It was discovered by Abreu of Portugal in 1501, and has been visited repeatedly ever since. Naturalists were the first to explore the interior, Wallace being the pioneer in 1858, and doing world-famous work. Missionaries came next, and five Protestant and Roman Catholic societies are in the field. The Dutch were the first to colonize (1827), the Germans proclaimed a protectorate in 1884, and Great Britam, inspired by anxious Australia, made annexations in 1885. Dutch New Guinea is the part of the island west of 1410 E. long, and covers 151,789 square miles, and perhaps has 200,000 native inhabitants. German New Guinea or Kx.iser Wilhelm's Land is the northern half of the eastern region, containing 70,000 square miles and having 15,232 natives. British New Guinea or the Territory of Papua consists of the southeastern portion of the island, with an area of 90,540 square miles and a population of 350,000 natives. The Australian commonwealth took control in 1901. The Dutch have done little for thoir territory; but the Germans are developing theirs through a company, though the imperial government administers public affairs; and the Australians have reduced many districts of the Territory of Papua to order and made tribes in large areas settle down to industry.

New Guinea is irregular in shape, consisting of a broad center from which a narrow peninsula runs southeastward and another to the northwest. The coasts are mostly lofty, but parts of the western shore are marshy flats covered with dense forests. The outline is broken by many indentations, but good harbors are rare. Mountain-ranges traverse the island, Mt. Owen Stanley in the southeast rising 13,205 feet, while in the northwest there are heights of over 20,000 feet, covered with perpetual snow, and active volcanoes. There are four or five large rivers. The animals, except a native pig and native mice, are marsupials and monotremes. Birds abound in amazing profusion and variety. The forests are filled with enormous trees, including the camphor. Bananas, cocoanuts,

maize, rice, sago, sugarcane and yams are cultivated. The chief exports are coffee, copra, gold, pearls and pearl-shells, sandalwood and trepang. The bulk of the natives are Papuans, who are not unlike the Negroes of African Guinea, but Malay settlements are numerous on the western coast. The Papuans mainly are at a low stage of culture. Some are fierce and untractable, others friendly in disposition. See Australia and British New Guinea.

New Hamp'shire, one of the original 13 states; forming part of the New England group, is situated south of Quebec, Canada, and is bounded on the east by Maine, on the west by the Connecticut River (which separates it from Vermon;) and on the south by Massachusetts. Its length is 185 miles, its breadth 90 miles, and its area 9,305 square miles. The capital is Concord (21,497). The other large cities are Manchester (70,063), Nashua (26,005), Dover (13,247) and Portsmouth (11,269).

Surface and Climate. The state is mountainous in parts, the White Mountains in the east-central region, being the most conspicuous and well-known elevations, soared over by Mt. Washington, with an altitude of 6,293 feet. Other elevated peaks occur in the northern and southwestern parts of the state; in the latter are Mt. Monadnock (3,186 feet) and Mt. Kearsarge (2,943 feet); while traversing the state lengthwise is the extreme eastern extension of the Appalachian chain. The drainage is effected by the Connecticut, Merrimac, Androscoggin, Saco, Pemigewasset, Winnepesaukee and Piscataqua Rivers; the chief lakes being Winnepesaukee, Śmbagog, Squam, Sunapee and New-Found Lakes. The state has a humid climate, with an abundant lainfall, especially in the mountain regions; while the winters^are usually long and severe, save in the delightful and healthy valleys, economically useful for ".^ricultural operations and desirable as residential districts.

Natural Resources. The state is interesting to the geologist, and, though denuded of its origina- forest, is rich in granite quarries and has considerable mica deposits. The rivers, moreover, furnish an abundant waterpower, taken advantage of by the manufacturing establishments; while wood-pulp in quantities is still available, derived chiefly from the new growth of timber. New Hampshire has a narrow sea-front, but sufficient, with its interior rivers and lakes, to give it some fishery interests — the principal catch embracing cod, mackerel, haddock, lobster and clams. The value, annually, of the timber and lumber products is to-day about 10 million dollars.

Agriculture and Stockraising. The area available for farming is comparatively limited. The region of the chief farms is the coast and the interior valleys, a total area of not more than 3,650,000 acres, and