NEW HAVEN                                            I32<>                                     NEW HEBRIDES

that utilized chiefly for garden products and fruit (especially apple) cultivation. The yield of hay is considerable, as are the forage crops; while much attention is given to dairying and to raising cattle, sheep, swine and horses.

Manufactures. The growth of these has been phenomenal, as one may realize by a visit to such centers of industry as Manchester, Nashua, Dover, Concord, Laconia, Keene and Portsmouth, one or other of these towns being the seat of establishments which turn out cotton goods, woolens, hosiery and knitted goods, boots and shoes, not to speak of the tanning trade, flour and grist mill ( utput, foundry, machine, lumber, timber and paper products and the factory products of cheese, butter and condensed milk. The manufacturing establishments exceed 1,600, with an aggregate capital of over no million dollars and a yield of products of $123,600,000 yearly, produced by 65,350 wage-earners. In the last year the yield of cotton goods was in value close upon 30 million dollars; of boots and shoes 22J millions; of woolen goods 11 millions; of hosiery and knit goods 4 millions; of paper products and wood pulp 9 millions; of foundry and machine shop products 4 millions; and of lumber and timber products 9 millions, with o.\ millions as the value of wood-packing boxes.

Commerce, Finance and Transportation. The railway mileage in i9°9 was 1,192 miles, consolidated in the hands of the Boston and Maine Railroad and of the Canadian line of the Grand Trunk. The banking business is handled by 57 national, nine state and 60 savings banks, with a total capital of six millions, and combined deposits close upon 75 millions. The net debt in x9°9 was under $800,000, with an assessed valuation of property of 225 millions.

Education. There are 2,200 elementary schools with a school population of 71,500 in 1900, an enrolled attendance of 65,690 and an average attendance of 47,275. Besides these there were 57 high schools with 200 teachers and 4,300 pupils. The school expenditure for the year amounted to $i,377>°°o- Higher education is represented by Dartmouth College, at Hanover (7. v.), a nonsectarian institution having 118 instructors and 1,229 students; St. Anselm's College (R. C.) at Manchester with 17 instructors and 135 students; the state normal school at Plymouth (for teachers) ; New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Durham, besides academies and private schools for boys at Exeter and Concord and asylums and charitable organizations for the indigent and afflicted.

History. The records of the early explorers include the visit of Sir Martin Pring in 1603 to Piscataqua Harbor and settlement 20

years later under land grants to John Mason and Sir Fernando Gorges, when the district was known as the Province of Maine. In 1629 a grant of land was made to Mason of territory lying between the Piscataqua and the Merrimac River, which subsequently came to be called New Hampshire from the county of Hampshire in England. Settlements followed later at Little Harbor, Dover, Exeter, Portsmouth and other places. In 1635, when John Mason died, the colony became unsettled and disturbed, when it was placed for protection, in 1641, under the colony of Massachusetts. A royal decree revived the separate colony of New Hampshire in 1680 under a grandson of Mason, and shortly after the colony was erected into a royal province, which it remained until the era of the Revolution, though without charter, the region being under the joint governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Then followed disputes with Massachusetts as to boundaries, together with trouble with the Indians, the state meanwhile taking active part in the Revolutionary War. Conventions succeeded conventions in the effort to secure a constitution, which the state ultimately received in 1792. In 1788 New Hampshire took part in ratifying the Federal constitution and in creating the Union. For a time Portsmouth was its capital, and then the capital became migratory, subsequently settling in Concord. For its industries see the works by McClistock, by Sanborn and by Barstow. Population 43°,572-

New Ha'ven, the largest seaport and city of Connecticut and fourth largest in New England, stands at the head of New Haven Bay. It has broad, shaded streets, public squares, parks and gardens and handsome public buildings. It also contains Yale University, Sheffield Scientific School, Hopkins Grammar School (1660) and a high school consisting of Hillhouse School and Board-man Manual-Training School. Its chief consequence is as a manufacturing town, having large works in hardware, wire, locks, clocks, cutlery, firearms, indiarubber goods, carriages, furniture, paper and matches. The city was settled by an English company in 1638 and was unconnected with Connecticut until 1662. It was incorporated as a town in 1665 and received a city charter in 1784. Until 1873 it was jointly the capital with Hartford. Population 133,605.

New Heb'rides, a chain of islands in Melanesia, west of Fiji and northeast of New Caledonia in the western Pacific, running from northeast to southwest. There are over 30 islands in the group, but only about 20 are populated. All are of volcanic origin, and some still have active volcanoes. The largest are Espiritú Santo, 70 miles by 40; Malikolo, 56 by 20; Ambrym, 22 by 17; Sandwich, 30 by 15; Erromango, 30 by 22;