This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 3" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.
and Tanna, 18 by 10. All are high and well-wooded, and the moist, clear, warm atmosphere allows the cultivation of tropical fruits and products, as the yam, taro, banana, breadfruit, sugar cane, arrow-root and cocoanut. The people, who belong to the Papuan and Polynesian races, are cannibals. The chain was discovered by Quiros, the Portuguese, in ióoŏ, and explored by Captain Cook in 1773. They are claimed by the British and by the French, and for the protection of life and property are under the authority of a mixed commission of French and English naval officers on Pacific stations. Population estimated at about 80,000.
New Jer'sey, a small but important state, one of the original Thirteen, 100 miles in length and 70 in extreme breadth, with an area of 7,815 square miles; capital Trenton (96,815). The population of the state (census 1910) is 2,537,167. It is bounded on the north and northeast by New York; on the south and southeast by Delaware Bay and the Atlantic; while Delaware River separates it on the west from Pennsylvania. It is closely connected with Manhattan Island and New York City by ferries across the Hudson River and the Lower Bay of New York to Hoboken, Jersey City and other eastern points of the state, these towns, with Newark and Elizabeth, being, as one may say, suburbs of New York City. Of easy access also from New York City are the towns and summer resorts of New Jersey's coast by rail and steamer, including Long Branch, Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Atlantic City and Cape May.
Surface and Climate. The natural features are not noteworthy, for the surface, for the most part, is a gently undulating plain, broken here and there by slight elevations, as the Kittatinny Range, the Navesink Highland, the Palisades of the Hudson and, in the northern part, the Appalachian Highland extension. Besides the Palisades other interesting features are Delaware Water-Gap, the low-lying beaches of the Atlantic coast and the lake resorts of Lake Hopaticong and Greenwood Lake. The rivers are the Passaic and Hackensack, which empty into Newark Bay, the Manrice, which falls into the Delaware, and the Raritan, which, following through Raritan Bay, finds its way into Lower (N. Y.) Bay and the Atlantic. The climate is temperate, varying slightly between north and south and between the lowlands and the highlands. The soil is composed chiefly of sand and clay, not rich enough on the whole to do without fertilizers, save in the river valleys.
Natural Resources. The agricultural industry, though not large, is in many respects important, chiefly in the cultivation, largely under glass, of early vegetables and orchard fruits for New York and other immediate markets, besides growing and trimming to-
matoes and raising poultry. In 1900 the acreage of the chief farm crops was corn, 295,258 acres; winter wheat 132,571; oats 75,959; rye 68,967; potatoes (Irish) 52,896; sweet potatoes 20,588; and hay, 444,610 acres. The cattle and dairy industry receives much attention, the numbers of live stock in 1900 being dairy cows, 157,407, other cattle 82,577; horses 94,024; swine 175,387; sheep 26,363; and mules and asses 4,931. The total farm acreage in 1900 was 2,840,996 acres, two thirds being improved farm land; while the average size of the farms did not exceed 82 acres. The extent of the dairy industry will be realized when it is related that over $6,000,000 represent the annual yield for milk. The returns from the orchard are large when we consider the state's comparatively small area. The chief fruits raised, however, are confined in the main to peaches, apples, strawberries and cranberries. The mining industries are limited to the quarrying of buildingstone and granite, besides soapstone and talc and magnetite ores, together with a considerable yield from the brick and tile yards and from the beds of Portland cement. The yield from lumber and timber products aggregated $1,860,000 in 1900. The fisheries form another source of wealth, the value of the catch in 1900 amounting to $4,750,000, besides the sums obtained from the oyster and clam yield.
Manufactures. New Jersey takes high rank among manufacturing states, the range of manufactured articles being both large and varied. They include, under textiles, cotton, woolen, worsted and silk goods', besides iron and steel, foundry and machine shop products; sewing machines; electrical apparatus; glass, pottery and terracotta ware; jewelry, leather and rubber goods; malt liquors; cigars and tobacco; lumber; chemicals; oil and petroleum refining; and other wares and products. In 1900 the gross value of the manufactures was estimated at close upon $612,000,000, the number of wage-earners exceeding 241,000 and the total capital employed being over $500,-000,000. The number of manufactories in 1900 was 15,481. The chief manufacturing centers are Newark, Jersey City, Paterson (the seat in especial of silk trade), Bayonne, Camden, Perth Amboy, Trenton (the seat of the trade in pottery), Passaic and Elizabeth, the latter being noted for its sewing-machine industry.
Commerce and Transportation. The state is well-supplied with financial institutions, there being to-day 145 national, 17 state and 25 savings banks, within its jurisdiction, besides about 50 trust companies, the combined deposits in which amount to close upon $235,000,000. In 1907 the total capital of the national bank approached $20,-000,000, of the state banks, $2,000,000 and of the trust companies doing business in New