ber, planing-mill products and flour and grist-mill products. Outside of New York City much of the volume of trade in special lines is turned out in other towns and districts, aided in part by the waterpower facilities of the localities. Troy, for instance, has become the manufacturing seat of shirts, collars and cuffs; Gloversville is noted for its glove trade; Cohoes for hosiery and knitted goods; Yonkers for carpets and rugs; Rochester for flourmilling and its boot and shoe trade; and Brooklyn for breweries, sugar-refineries, foundries and machine-shops.

Commerce and Transportation. With its ocean and lake ports, canal and vast railway facilities, the commerce of New York is of stupendous and steadily growing volume, both local and foreign. The imports of New York City in 1906 were close upon $735,000,000 in value, while its total exports exceeded 600 millions. The foreign tonnage, entering and clearing for 1906 was, entered 10,476,993 tons; cleared 9,913,960 tons. Large also was the trade of the interior ports, as Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Ogdens-burg, Oswego, Rochester and Plattsburg. Extensive are the banking facilities, more particularly in New York City, added to by the operations of the trust-companies, the general soundness of all of which has in repeated financial crises been put to protracted and severe tests. In 1907 the state had 390 national banks with an aggregate capital of close upon $150,000,000, deposits of $880,000,000 and loans exceeding $926,000,000. There also were 193 state banks with about $30,000,000 of capital and $275,000,000 on deposit. There were, moreover, some 75 trust companies, with about $60,000,000 of capital and about $1,000,000,000 in deposit. Besides these the state in 1905-06 had 127 savings banks, with 2,637,235 depositors and over $1,335,-000,000 on deposit, — an average of $506.25 for each depositor. The activities and extent of the banking of the state and its chief metropolis may be otherwise gathered by noting the volume of the transactions for 1906 in the New York Clearing-House, which totalled $103,775,000,000 or average daily clearings of $342,422,772. The state's receipts and expenditures to-day about balance at $30,000,000 annually, the chief outlay being for education, for hospital and charities' maintainance, besides the expenses incurred by the executive, legislative and judicial departments, and for canal maintenance. The debt of the state to-day, incurred chiefly since 1893 in improving the canals, is only about $11,000,000. The state's railway mileage (8,225 miles in gross) consists of the N. Y. Central and Hudson River; Erie; N. Y., Ontario, and Western; Delaware, Lackawanna and Western; Lehigh Valley; Delaware and Hudson; and Long Island railways. Besides these roads

there are the great commercial arteries of the Hudson and of the canals — the Erie, Oswego and Champlain, — the total expenditure of the state on which has exceeded $100,000,000, nearly $66,000,000 being spent on the Erie Canal.

Education. For school-purposes the state organized in 1854 into 113 commissioners' districts under the Department of Education, the Board of Regents of the University of New York {q. v.) since 1904 having supervision of the secondary and the higher-educational institutions. In 1905 the elementary schools had 1,311,108 pupils enrolled, with an average daily attendance of 996,443, and 39,081 teachers, the bulk of whom were women. The secondary schools had an enrollment of 85,000 and an average attendance of about 60,000. The gross expenditure of the state for education was close upon $50,000,000, fully $24,000,000 being yearly expended on teachers' salaries. The training of teachers is amply provided for in a number of professional schools and normal school institutes, the chief being Teachers' College, Manhattan, with 75 instructors and 975 students. In the state there are some 15 or 16 theological schools, 12 schools of medicine, 8 of law, besides schools of pharmacy, music and dentistry. The chief colleges for women are Vassar College at Poughkeepsie and Barnard College, an annex of Columbia University, in New York City. Columbia is the most important university in the state, with 646 instructors, 5,057 students and close upon 20,000 graduates since organization. Other colleges in Manhattan embrace the non-sectarian College of the City of New York with 179 instructors and 3,905 students; St. John's College (R. C), Fordham, N. Y. City, with 56 instructors and 603 students; St. Francis Xavier College (R. C), Manhattan, with 31 instructors and 550 students; Manhattan College (R. C), with 16 instructors and 212 students. The advanced institutions outside of New York City embrace Cornell University, at Ithaca, With 663 instructors and 5,194 students; : the University of Rochester (Baptist) with 34 instructors and 438 students; Union College, Schenectady, with 30 instructors and 240 students; St. Angela College (R. C), New Rochelle, with 19 instructors and 100 students; Syracuse University (nonsec-tarian) with 240 instructors and 3,248 students; Niagara University (R. C), Niagara Falls City, with 25 instructors and 300 students; Kenka College (nonsectarian), Kenka Park, with 17 instructors and 106 students; Elmira College (Presbyterian , with 19 instructors and 255 students; Hamilton College (nonsectarian), Clinton, with 19 instructors and 185 students; Hobart College (nonsectarian), Geneva, with j6 instructors and 120 students; Colgate University (undenominational), at Hamilton, with 40 in-