NEW YORK                                             1334                                     NEW YORK CITY

structors and 400 students; Alfre University (nonsectarian), with 30 instructors and 385 students; Canisius College (R. C), Buffalo, with 30 instructors and 470 students; A delphi College (nonsectarian), Brooklyn, with 34 instructors and 477 students; besides a number of technical institutes, the chief of which is Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, with 55 instructors and 6 50 students. (The national Military Academy of the United States is at West Point, with 83 instructors and an attendance of 475). Other colleges are Wells (nonsectarian), Aurora, with 24 instructors and 189 students; St. Stephen's (Protestant Episcopal), Annandale, with 9 instructors and 63 students; St. Lawrence University (Universal-ist), Canton, with 52 instructors and 64Ŏ students; Rochester Theological Seminary (Baptist), with 14 instructors and 145 students; Rochester Athenĉum and Mechanics' Institute (nonsectarian), with 6o instructors and 2,790 students; Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, with 153 instructors and i,773 students; Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, with 578 students; the General Theological Seminary (Protestant Episcopal), N. Y. City, with 18 instructors and 127 students; Auburn Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), with 14 instructors and 63 students; Clarkson School of Technology, Potsdam, with 10 instructors and 70 students; and Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. City, with 21 instructors and 157 students. (See articles under titles preceding) .

History. The region and its chief waterways were at an early era visited by navigators and explorers, Portuguese, French and Spanish, Verrazano, it is recorded, discovering New York Bay and the mouth of the Hudson in 1524. It, however, was not until 1609 that the region came into historic note, for in that year Hudson ascended the river in the Dutch fur-trading interest ; while almost simultaneously Lake Champlain was discovered by the founder of Quebec and father of New France. The Dutch astutely profited by the enmity of the Iroquois to the French, for they made friends of the Iroquois, who subserved their interests, or at least did not oppose their colonizing and trading in New Netherland. In 1623 settlements began to be formed, first by a number of Walloons on Manhattan and Long Island, while Fort Orange (Albany) was founded on the upper Hudson. The Indians, found at first to be tractable, were induced to part with their lands, and from them not only Manhattan and Staten Islands were acquired by Peter Minuit and Michael Pauw, but Killian Van Rensselaer also secured holdings in the Albany region; while colonists, including French Huguenots and English Puritans, were encouraged to settle by the cancelling of the Dutch company's monopoly of trade. For a time, how-

ever, there was trouble with the Algonquins, and settlements in the neighborhood of New Amsterdam were destroyed and the colony threatened with extinction. Under Governor Stuyvesant (1647-64) the times were more or less stormy, but the colony grew apace. In the last year of Stuyvesant's rule New Amsterdam was confronted by the presence of an English fleet come to enforce the title of the region given by Charles II to the Duke of York, his brother. With the surrender of the garrison, Dutch rule, save in 1673-4, came to a close, and New Amsterdam gave place to its present title of New York. Under the English crown the colony remained until the Revolution, being under the control and sway of over thirty colonial governors. During this period there at times were menacing movements on the border settlements; there also were the harassing hostilities of the French and their dusky allies in 1757-63, the period of the French and Indian War; besides collisions during the era preceding the Revolution between the colonists who had grown restive under monarchical rule and the harsh sway of gubernatorial authority. The battle of Saratoga (1777) was the turning-point of the American Revolution, and it, with the battles of Oriskany and Walloomsac, two more of the most important battles of the Revolution, was fought in New York. New York also was the scene of considerable fighting in its northern area during the War of 1812-14, a conflict which bore heavily upon the border settlements from the Niagara district to the eastern end of Lake Ontario and on the St. Lawrence borders from Ogdensburg to the region round Lake Champlain. With peace came the era of canal construction, internal development, increasing colonization and, later, the beginnings of the railway system and improved highways. The state bore its share of the responsibilities and burdens entailed by the Civil War. Since then its progress has been continuously substantial and gratifying. See Schuyler's Colonial New York; Lossing's Empire State; Robert's New York in the Revolution; and Phisterer's New York in the War of the Rebellion.

New York City. Manhattan Island, the heart of the second largest city in the world, is only if miles wide and 13J miles long. A good pedestrian could walk across it in thirty minutes, and he could walk its length from the Battery, up Broadway, to Spuyten Duyvil Creek in half a working day. The island covers 41J square miles. In this small space were crowded at the time Greater New York was organized (1898) 1,850,000 human beings. To this number must be added the 200,000 strangers normally there. In the daytime this number is swelled another million by those who work in the city but sleep from five to fifty miles away. Subtracting the park-area and other