NEWGATE                                            1342                                              NEWMAN

been built across th« island, commenced. From that time the progress of the colony began. It gave life to lumbering and mining.

Physical Features. For a fast crusier Newfoundland is only four days from Ireland (1,640 miles). This fact makes plain its importance to Great Britain and Canada as a base for guarding the Atlantic route. It is larger than Ireland, being the tenth largest island in the world. It contains 42,-000 square miles. It is the key of the St. Lawrence and, as a naval base, commands the whole trade of the northern Atlantic. Its population is 225,000, all living on the coast. There is twice as much sunshine in Newfoundland as in Great Britain. From June to October the climate is delightful. Its interior is an immense game pnsssrve. For its size it contains more caribou (a subspecies of the European reindeer) than any other part of the world. The forests of the center and north are almost .mpe xetrable. ».nd furnish safe quarters for the deer. Beaver, otter and foxes are found all over the island. The Atlantic salmon i: found in hundreds of streams, and the numerous lakes abound with trout. The resemblance between Newfoundland and the British Isles is remarkable. Both occupy the same relative position, the one on the northwest of Europe, the other on the northeast of America. Both the British Isles and Newfoundland were broken off from the mainland.

Resources. The ice-burdened, northern current, laden with fish, furnishes food for the cod, herring and seals, which are the mainstay of the chief industry. Newfoundland has the largest catch of cod in the world. Almost every known metallic substance of value is found. There is an abundance of iron and copper. It has a promising coal-field (undeveloped). Copper ore to the value of $17,000,000 has been exported. At Bell Island, Conception Bay, one of the most valuable iron-mines in the world has been opened recently. It is owned by the Nova Scotia Steel Company and the Dominion Iron and Steel Company. There is an immense quantity of gypsum. Only one sixth of Newfoundland is fit for agriculture. One half of t is rough and broken. One third is covered with lakes. The value of the fisheries in 1902 was nearly $9,000,000. About $300,000 worth of lumber is exoorted yearly. There is an enormous quantity of small spruce and fir near the lakes and rivers. Its total exports exceed its imports in value. A large part of its food and nearly all of the manufactured goods it uses are bought abroad. Its export of minerals in 1904 amounted to $1,288,565. Exploits River (the chief center of the salmon-fishing) is the largest in Newfoundland. It runs in a northeasterly direction and is 200 miles long. Placentia Bay on the south is noted for its

valuable fisheries of cod, salmon and herring. St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands on the south belong to France, and trade heavily with Newfoundland and Canada. They are valuable as fishing-stations for French fishermen on the Banks. The fogs on the eastern coast are caused by the cold waters of the Arctic current meeting the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The Banks of Newfoundland (elevations of the ocean-bed, 600 miles long and 200 broad) are about 100 miles from the shore.

The French, by treaty, acquired rights of fishing on part of the shore. This is called The French Shore. These rights have proved injurious to Newfoundland, causing friction in various ways. There are 500 miles of railway. The governor is appointed by the king of England. Its legislature is elected. Its capital is St. Johns, located on St. Johns Harbor, which is said to be one of the finest in the world. Its chief industry is exporting fish. It has a good graving-dock accommodating the largest vessels. It is the nearest port in America to Europe. Its population is 31,000.

Education. The public-school system is denominational. In the old days the only schools were those supported by the various religious denominations. The schools and colleges annually prepare their pupils for written examinations, the papers being prepared in England and the answers sent to England for marking. This is done to avoid any suspicion of denominational partiality or control.

New'gate, a famous London prison, stands opposite the Old Bailey, at the end of Newgate Street. Its high, windowless walls long inclosed the principal prison of the city, but it is now under the control of the court of aldermen. It derives its name from having been the new gate to the city prior to 1218. The prison was destroyed by the fire in 1666 and rebuilt in 1780. Newgate was discontinued as a prison by the prisons bill of 1877. See Griffith's Chronicles of Newgate.

New'man (John Henry), Cardinal, a leader of the Church of England, afterwards, in 1845, a communicant of the Roman church and in 1879 a cardinal by appointment of Leo XIĪI, was born at London, Feb. 2i, 1801, and graduated from Trinity College in 1820. In 1832 he published his first book, Arians of the Fourth Century, in which he vindicated the divine nature of Christ. In 1833 he traveled to the Mediterranean with Froude and his father for his health, and on the journey wrote most of the poems which were afterwards published as Lyra Apostolica, the object being to assert the spiritual power of the Church of England. Among these was world-famous Lead Kindly Light. On his return to England, he entered into the Tractarian movement in the Anglican church. He wrote a great many of these tracts himself, teaching that the Anglican