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church stands midway between the Roman Catholic and the popular Protestant. His most notable book is the Apologia pro Vita Sua, a history of his religious opinions. Disraeli and Gladstone characterized his withdrawal as a severe blow to the English church. As a Roman Catholic his works mainly are Loss and Gain, a story of a conversion; Callista, the story of an African martyr; Grammar of Assent; a volume of lectures on Anglican Difficulties; Verses on Various Occasions; and several volumes of sermons. In 1870 he opposed the declaration of papal infallibility as inopportune. To reward and conciliate the English moderates, of whom Newman was the head, Leo XIII made him a cardinal. He died at Edgbaston (Birmingham), Aug. 11, 1890. Consult Whyte's biography.

New'port, Ky., is the county-seat of Campbell County, opposite Cincinnati, on the Ohio at the mouth of Licking River. The city has large rolling mills, foundry, bolt works, steam mills, tile works, screen and window and door sash factories and also one of the largest lithographing houses in this country. Population 30,309. Fort Thomas, a U. S. military post, is located just above this city.

Newport, R. I., a city, is a port of entry and was one of the capitals till 1900. It is the most noted fashionable resort in America, and has magnificent private estates and villas. Its capacious and beautiful harbor is a great yacht rendezvous, and the city has many parks, fountains and monuments of great beauty. It has unexcelled public schools, and is the seat of St. George's and Cloyne House Schools and St. Mary's Academy. On Coaster Harbor are the U. S. war-college and naval training-school and a naval hospital. Newport possesses many points of historical interest, among them the state-house, built in 1742, now used as the county court-house; the Jewish synagogue (1762); Trinity Church (1725); Redwood Library (1748); and the "Old Stone Mill" pointed out as an alleged relic of the days of the Norsemen, but a subject of controversy. The town was settled in 1639 by Roger Williams and eight followers. Population 27,149.

Newport News, Va., a rapidly growing town and port of entry on James River, Hampton Roads, southeastern Virginia. It is the capital of Warwick County, is connected by electric railway with Hampton and Old Point Comfort, and is 14 miles north of Norfolk and 70 southeast of Richmond. Possessing a magnificent harbor, it has extensive ship-building plants, dry docks, grain elevators and capacious warehouses on its piers. It has a large foreign commerce, chiefly of grain. It has a large trade in peanuts. Its manufacturing interests are woodworking mills, lumber-mills, iron-works, shirt and shoe factories. Newport News although a young town, has an improved

system of waterworks and electric light and gas plants. Population 20,205.

News'paper, a sheet of paper printed and distributed from time to time for the purpose of conveying news. The number of newspapers now in the world is estimated at 60,000. The bulk is issued as follows: United States 21,145; Germany 8,049; France, 6,681; Great Britain and Ireland, 9,500 besides 2,290 magazines and reviews; Austria-Hungary, 2,958; Italy, 2,757; Spain, 1,000; Russia, 1,000; Switzerland, 1,005; Belgium 956 and Holland 980; and Japan 1,000. Of the languages in which they are published, over 30,000 are printed in English; 7,500 in German; 6,800 in French; 1,800 in Spanish; and 1,500 in Italian. Newspapers first came into existence centuries before the Christian era when the reports of the Roman army were transmitted by the senate to the generals in all parts of the country, but for the actual newspaper we are indebted to Germany. In Augsburg, Vienna, Ratisbon and Nuremberg it was the practice, early in the 15 th century, to issue news-sheets in the form o* letters. Yet the first newspaper that at all covered the same idea as tnose of the present day was. issued in Venice, by order of the Venetian government in 1566, and called the Notizie Scritte. At first they were not printed, but written out and hung up in various public places, where the people could read them on payment of a small coin. The first actual English newspaper was the Weekly News of 1622, edited and published by Nathaniel Butler. The Lo. idon Weekly Courant came out in the same year. The first daily paper was the Daily Courant, which appeared, printed on one side only, in 1702. The daily circulation of newspapers in the United Kingdom is about 10,000,000. The regular system of advertising, which supports the newspaper and benefits the advertiser, did not begin until 16 7 3, when the columns of a few papers were opened to regular classified advertisements. Some of the principal and largest newspapers of to-day are: In England the (daily) Times, Daily Mail, Telegraph, Standard, Chronicle, Star, Echo, Evening News and Post; in France the Temps, Figaro, Siècle, Petit Parisien and Petit Journal.

There are now published in the United States over 21,145 newspapers, of which a1 -ut 2,100 appear daily. The first newspaper published in America was Publick Occurrences (1690), followed in 1704 by the Boston News-Letter and the Boston Gazette. At the present time a newspaper is not only a sheet for disseminating news, but apparently a leader in politics and a commentator on politics, religion, research, science, amusement, sport and social and political economy. See Baker's The Newspaper World.

Newt, a common salamander, represented by several distinct species, abundant in quiet