partment with the rank of brigadier in the regular army. He retired from the service in August, 1886, and was elected president of the Panama Railroad Company in 1888. He died at New York, May 1, 1895.

Ney (nā), Michel, one of the famous marshals under Napoleon, was a cooper's son, born at Sarre-Louis, Jan. 10, 1769. At the beginning of the Revolution he was an under-officer in a hussar regiment, but merit soon brought him promotion, and after'the siege of Mainz in 1794 he was made adjutant-general. He earned the rank of brigadier-general under Jourdan in 1796,.and for the capture of Mannheim in 1799 was made general of division. At one time he also commanded the army of the Rhine, and after the declaration he married a friend of Napoleon and was made inspector-general of cavalry. When the empire was established, he was made marshal of France. He stormed Elchingen, and for this was created Duke of Elchingen. At Jena and Eylau he served with distinction, as in Spain and Russia. At Waterloo he led the center and had five horses shot under him, but after the surrender of Paris, in flight to Switzerland, he was recognized by a costly sword he wore, and condemned by the house of peers to die for high treason, in going over to Napoleon on his return from Elba. He was shot in the Luxembourg gardens, Paris, Dec. 7, 1815.

Nez Perces ( na'pr'saz' ), meaning pierced noses, a tribe of American Indians that settled in Idaho and were friendly to the whites. In 1877 some refused to accede to a treaty reducing their reservation, attacked settlers and soldiers, and fled to Montana and Dakota. They were overtaken, and the 350 survivors transferred to Indian Territory, and in 1885 sent to Idaho, some to the Colville Indians in Washington.

Ngami (n'ga'me), Lake, discovered by Livingstone in 1849, is situated in the northern extremity of the Kalahari desert in British South Africa, and is 2,810 feet above sea level. Its size depends on the rainfall in the surrounding country, but its average length is 50 miles and width from 10 to 20. Its chief tributaries are the Okovango on the northwest and the Zouga on the east.

Niag'ara, Can., a town on Lake Ontario. Capacious steamers in summer cross daily to Toronto, a favorite route from Buffalo to Toronto. It formerly was called Newark. On September 18, 1792, the pioneer parliament of Upper Canada, consisting of 16 members, met at Newark (Niagara). "The annals of the North American continent present no incident in the momentous science of government to surpass in the elements of political faith, hope and heroism the opening of the first parliament of the western province." (Watson's History.) One of the firstacts of the first session established trial by jury. In the second session (1793) it abolished slavery, the first legislative body

in the Empire to do so. Four of the members were Pawling, Pettit, Swayzie and Young, and many of their descendants still live in the province. Population 1,500.

Niagara ("Thuncer of Waters"), a river of North America, which forms part of the boundary between New York and Ontario. It flows from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, a course of 36 miles, during which it makes a total descent of 326 feet, about 50 feet in the rapids immediately above the great falls and nearly no feet in the seven miles of rapids below. It incloses several islands, the largest, Grand Island, being nearly 10 miles long. Four miles below this island are the most famous falls in the world. The center of the river here is occupied by Goat Island, dividing the cataract into the Horseshoe (Canadian) Fall, with a descent of 158 feet, and the American Fall, 162 te 169 feet; the outline of the former is about 2,640 feet, of the latter 1,000 feet. The volume of water which sweeps over this immense chasm is about 15,000,000 cubic feet a minute. The depth of water on the crest of the falls is less than four feet, except in a few places, notably at the apex of Horseshoe Fall, where it is about 20 feet. The limestone edge of both falls is rapidly wearing away in the center. For seven miles below the falls the river is shut in between perpendicular walls of rock from 200 to 350 feet high. Just below the cataract the river is crossed by a suspension bridge for carriages and foot-passengers, and a mile and a half further down are two railroad bridges, one a cantilever, about 100 yards apart. On both shores the lands bordering the river, for some distance above and below the falls, are under the immediate control of the respective governments. New York Park at Niagara Falls embraces 115 acres, and Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park about 154 acres. From both sides visitors clad in waterproofs are conducted under the falls. The immense water-power supplied by the falls was utilized at Buffalo by the Pan-American exposition in 1901, and to-day is generally utilized in an extensive region in the vicinity of the falls. Electric displays are a further attraction to tourists and sightseers. The illuminating apparatus consists of three batteries of 50 search-lights equipped with 30-inch and 60-inch projectors, operated by electrical engines of 300-horsepower. They throw a volume of light equivalent to that of 1,115,-000,000 candles.

Niagara Falls City, N. Y., a rapidly growing town in Niagara County, on Niagara River. The city is 20 miles north of Buffalo and about 13 south of Lake Ontario. The New York Central; Erie; Lehigh Valley; Michigan Central; and other railroads converge here. All have connections into Canada. Of recent years engineering skill has, by tunnels and a hydraulic canal, utilized for practical industrial purposes the enor-