NIAGARA FALLS CITY                          I34                     NIAGARA POWER-PLANT

mous water-power here obtainable, — a utility which Buffalo has taken advantage of. Niagara Falls City is the center of the electrochemical industries of the world. A model factory making shredded-wheat biscuit is an object of interest to thousands of annual tourists. School buildings number 14, and the enrollment is 4,560 pupils. Population 30,445.

Niagara Falls City, Ontario, Can., 83 miles from Toronto, is on Niagara River in sight of the falls. It is the center of the great power-development in Canada, transmission lines supplying Toronto. Owing to its location (a point of contact for Canadian and American railways, the only one between Montreal and Detroit), it is a noticeably busy and congested railway center. Electric railways leave it for all points, including Buffalo. Several important industries, because of cheap power and excellent transportation, have been attracted to it. Among them are silverworks, a cereal plant and electrochemical industries. Three powerful plants for the development of electrical power have been installed. They represent an expenditure of nearly $20,000,000, and have about 100,000 horse-power available for transmission. Thirty thousand horsepower has already been sold for use in the United States. The ultimate development of the three companies is estimated to be 405,000 horse-power. To accomplish this 31,050 cubic feet of water every second will be used. The suspension bridge over the river was opened for traffic in 1855. Population 10,036.

Niagara Falls Park, Ont., overlooking Niagara Falls. The park consists of 196 acres. To make it as attractive as possible the commissioners appointed by the government have acquired a strip along Niagara River and lands at Queenston Heights, Fort Erie and Niagara Glen, comprising 787 acres. All that expert landscape-gardening can do has been done to show to best advantage the magnificent scenic beauty of this wonderful spot. It is wonderful not alone because of the falls and the rugged grandeur of the river-banks, but because of the rarely beautiful plant life which marks the neighborhood and for many years has proved attractive to scientists. Electric roads carry tens of thousands almost daily during the tourist months to view the falls. The Whirlpool and Duĭerin Islands are grand and attractive. In winter the scenery is peculiarly beautiful. It is estimated that 174,000 cubic feet of water flow over the crest of Horseshoe Falls every second. In acquiring the land and in permanent improvements $1,-500,000 have been spent. The approaches to the park have been widened, and the shore along Niagara River is being protected with the view of forming a continuous and beautiful boulevard 33 miles in length along the river. All told, this park is one of the most

attractive spots in Canada. Not a little of the credit is due to Mr. Langmuir, chairman of the commissioners, and to Mr. Wilson, the park-superintendent. The first aim of the commissioners has been to preserve the rare natural beauty of the locality and protect it from anything savoring of the unsightly or the incongruous. Lord Dufferin, nearly 20 years ago, advocated a national park as a Dominion enterprise. This appearing impossible and delay involving difficulties, Premier Oliver Mowat of Ontario, specially urged by Richard Harcourt, one of his supporters, representing a Niagaran constituency, appointed a commission with power to expropriate land to acquire the property at and near the falls and convert it into a provincial park. The wise plan thus originated has been happily and successfully completed. Thousands who have viewed the scene with awe and wonder have recalled Anthony Trollope's tribute: "Of all the sights on earth which tourists travel to see — at least of all those which I have seen — I am inclined to give the palm to the Falls of Niagara. I know of no other one thing so beautiful, glorious and powerful."

Niagara Falls, Tunnels and Power Plant. The force going to waste over the Falls of Niagara has been estimated at 7,000,000 horse-power. Such unused resources naturally attracted the attention of engineers and economists at an early day, and in 1873 a small canal utilized about 6,000 horse-power for certain mills. The invention of the dynamo and the transmission of energy by electric wire gave a new impulse to the attempt to use more of the power in sight. A company was organized in 1886, and chartered by the legislature of New York, having this end in view. Experts visited Europe to study approved methods of power transmission. Work was begun in 1890 by the Cataract Construction Company, and a tunnel was dug 6,837 feet long, 21 feet high and 19 wide. It required three years and about $4,000,000 to complete the undertaking. The water is drawn from the river by a canal no feet wide at the end and 180 at the mouth, the canal being 1,400 feet long. The water, which is brought from the river by the canal, is carried over 14 turbine wheels, each having 5,000 horse-power; and, after passing through the turbines, it is carried away by the tunnel. Each turbine is connected with a dynamo of 5,000 horsepower, and the electric current is thus brought to Buffalo, 18 miles distant, where it is used for lighting the city, operating tramways in the streets, pumping water for city use and running machinery in various factories. It is expected that the power thus generated will be distributed over all the western part of New York by improved processes of transmission. In 1901-2 the original plant was more than duplicated by the construction of a new wheel-pit connected