NORTH DAKOTA, UNIV. OF                 1359


to $125,323,154. In 1905-06 there were 113 national and 242 state banks. The former had an aggregate capital of close upon $4,-000,000 and over $18,000,000 of individual deposits, the state institutions a combined capital of nearly $3,000,000, with over $13,-000,000 in deposit.

Education. In 1900 the school expenditure was close upon $1,500,000, derived from local taxes, the permanent school-fund and the sale or rental of school-lands. In 1904-05 the number of enrolled pupils was 106,-909, while the average daily attendance was but 67,883; the number of teachers was 5,-714, the average monthly salary of which was for men $47.78 and for women $40.80. In 1904 there were 30 high schools, with a total attendance of 1,200. There are a state agricultural college at Fargo and normal schools at Mayville and Valley City. Higher education is represented by the University of North Dakota, near Grand Forks, with 51 instructors and 807 students; Fargo College (Congregational), with 19 instructors and 244 students; and by Red River Valley University (Methodist Episcopal), at Wah-peton.

History. The Dakotas were in the Louisiana purchase of 1803, and from that era to 1812 formed a part of Louisiana Territory, subsequently renamed Missouri Territory In 1810 French Canadians from the Canadian Red River settlement built a fort at Pembina, which Lord Leekirk, the Canadian governor, claimed mistakenly as a British stronghold. Early in the century the region was explored from Mandan by the Lewis and Clark expedition, and in 1839 a considerable part of the country was explored by Fremont. In 1849 North Dakota east of the Missouri became part of Minnesota for a time, and the area west of the river was made a part of Nebraska Territory In 1851 to the Federal government was ceded part of the lands held by the Sioux Indians, and these lands were thrown open for settlement. In 1861 Dakota Territory was created, part of Montana and part of Wyoming being included in it; while two years later, on the creation of Idaho Territory, the Dakotas assumed almost their present area, and in 1889 they were separated, forming North Dakota and South Dakota. After their erection into separate statehood, each was given a constitution, a convention which met at Bismarck in 1889 agreed upon a constitution, and in November the state was formally admitted into the Union.

North Dakota, University of, was established in 1883. The federal government gave it land which probably will eventually yield $2,000,000 as endowment. The state makes annual appropriations for it. Its income for 1906 was $378,136, receipts from benefactions being $30,000 and productive funds $195,000. The faculty numbered 63, the Students 1,000 and the library 30,000 vol-

umes. The departments comprise the colleges of liberal arts, of mechanical and electrical engineering and of mining engineering, the normal college and thfe schools ol commerce and pharmacy.

North, Frederick, eighth Lord North and second earl of Guilford, an English statesman, was born on April 13, 1732, and educated at Oxford. He entered the house of commons at the age of 2 2, and was made lord of the treasury in 1759. In 1767 he was appointed chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the house of commons, being there opposed to Fox and Burke. In 1770 he became prime minister, and his course, to a large extent, caused England to lose America. He resigned in 1782, and became blind five years before his death, which occurred on Aug. 5, 1792.

Northamp'ton, the capital of Northamptonshire, England, is a municipal county and parliameataiy borough, and lies on rising ground on the left bank of the river New. It is the center of the boot and shoe industry of England, and has extensive breweries. The city was burned by the Danes in 1010, rebuilt by Simon de St. Liz in 1075, besieged by the barons against King John in 1215, and was the scene of tile treaty recognizing the independence of Scotland in 1318. Population about 75,000

Northampton, Mass., the county-seat of Hampshire County, is situated neat the left bank of the Connecticut River, 103 miles from Boston It manufactures paper, silk, cotton and woolen goods, sewing machines, baskets, cutlery, brushes and jet ornaments. In the city are the state insane asylum, Clark institute for deaf-mutes, public library and Smith College for women. Population 19,-431.

North'men or Norse'men was a name applied in the middle ages to the seafarers who came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and then to those of Norway only. Their passion was sailing and war, and to satisfy it they sailed in all directions to discover and plunder Jn plain words, they were pirates, who, during the summer months, visited other lands and preyed upon them, or lay in wait in river mouths or behind islands for vessels to attack and pillage. Their age may be divided into two periods, the first lasting to the middle of the 9th century, devoted to murder and plunder, and from then to the 13th centuiy, given to permanent conquest in Ireland, South Italy, England and France. The first attack was made upon Wessex, in England, in 787, and reached France about the end of the century, and up to 850 they committed most terrible depredations. In 859 and »60 a large fleet entered the Mediterranean and ra /aged Spain, Mauritania and Majorca, spending the winter at the mouth of the Rhône, to begin the attack on Italy in the spring. Thus they subsisted on the entue seaboard of Europe