'NORTHROP                                               I360                 NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

until Charles the Simple concluded a peace, by which they were allowed to settle in France, and gave them the territory between the Channel, the Seine and the Ept, on the condition that they fought for him and became Christians. The name of Normandy was given to this district, and the Northmen living in it were called Normans. They ruled here from the 10th to the 13 th century, when it was taken from them by the king of France, the most illustrious of their dukes being William who became king of England in 1066, with the title of William the Conqueror. The Normans adopted the language and manners of the French, and changed their heathen rites for the Christian religion. The Norsemen, early in the 9th century, had opened the route to the White Sea by rounding North Cape, and before 1222 had many times sailed up the northern Dwina.

Nor'throp, Cyrus, an American educator who from 1884 has been president of the University of Minnesota, was born in 1834 at Ridgefield, Conn. He passed through Yale College and Yale Law School, became a lawyer, and successively was clerk to the Connecticut House of Representatives and to the Senate. During 1862-3 ne was chief editor of the New Haven Daily Palladium. He in 1863 became professor of English literature and rhetoric at Yale, until 1884.

North Sea or German Ocean is the southern arm of the Arctic Ocean, lying between Britain and Norway. It communicates with the Atlantic through the English Channel and Straits of Dover on the south, and by Pentland Firth and the Orkney and Shetland Channels on the north, and with the Baltic through Skager-Rack and Cattegat. It is over 600 miles long and 400 miles wide, and has an area of 180,000 square miles. The sea is in most places quite shallow, averaging 61 fathoms, but on the Norwegian coast is 360 fathoms deep. It is the receptacle of the waters of the Thames, Ouse, Humber, Tyne, Tweed, Forth, Tay, Scheldt, Rhine, Weser and Elbe. The water is probably the least salty of any of the large seas, and, except in the summer, is warmer than the surrounding atmosphere. The tides are irregular, having a large ebb and flow in some places, while it is hardly perceptible in others. The North Sea has long been one of the commercial highways of the world, and affords a valuable fishing-ground.

North Star, The, is the nearest conspicuous star to the north pole. All stars describe circles, those nearest to the celestial equator the largest circles and those farthest from the celestial equator or nearest to the poles the smallest circles. The North Star being nearest to the north pole describes only a very small circle, and consequently to people living north of the 40° north latitude it never sets. Polaris, the star Alpha of the constellation Ursa Minor, is at present the

North Star, and many centuries must pass before the north pole will be defined by any other star. Two stars in the constellation Ursa Major, commonly called the Big Dipper, always point in the direction of the North Star and enable it to be readily found. These stars are commonly called the pointers. They form the side of the bowl of the dipper opposite the handle.

North Ton'awan'da, N. Y., a city in Niagara County at the confluence of Niagara River and Tonawanda Creek; on the Erie Canal and .the Lehigh Valley, Erie and New York Central railroads. Only 1 o miles from Buffalo, several other railroads using leased tracks, and electric lines connect it with that city, Niagara Falls and other places. It has large manufacturing and commercial interests. Pig-iron, steam-pipes, merry-go-rounds, steam-pumps, bolts, nuts and a large variety of lumber products are manufactured here. The government is vested in a mayor, who holds office for two years, and a council consisting of two members from each ward and three at large. The city owns and operates its own water-works. Aided by the development of power at Niagara Falls, it has had a very rapid growth. Population ii>955-

Northwest Territories of Canada, The. Since the creation in September, 1905, of the new provinces in the west of the Canadian Dominion — Saskatchewan and Alberta — together with the creation (June, 1898), of Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories have been considerably reduced in area. As at present constituted, their area now is only 1,922,735 square miles, 51,680 square miles being water surface. The territories are governed directly from Ottawa, instead of having a legislature and governor at Regina, as formerly, with representation in the Dominion Parliament. In early years the region of the Northwest Territories, including Manitoba and the new provinces west of it, was under the direct control of the Hudson Bay Company, by whom it was treated as a vast hunting preserve. Since the creation of the new western provinces and the erection of the separate Territory of Yukon, situated north of British Columbia and adjoining Alaska, the Northwest Territories embrace Mackenzie District (g.v.), through which Mackenzie River flows into the Arctic Ocean; Franklin District, comprising all the area around the Arctic seas; and Keewatin District, lying north of Manitoba, east of it as far as Hudson Bay and James Bay and south as far as the line of Albany River, the northwestern boundary of Ontario. The northwest Territories also embrace those portions of the original territories of Saskatchewan and Alberta not included in them as provinces, in addition to the northeast District of Un-gava situated north of Quebec and extending from Hamilton and East Main Rivers north to Hudson Strait and flanked by the