NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY           1361

NORWICH

Atlantic and by Hudson and James Bays on the west.

North'west'ern University, a Methodist Episcopal institution, is at Evanston, 111., 12 miles north of the center of Chicago. It was first opened in 1855. The university comprises the following departments, each having a distinct faculty of instruction : the college of liberal arts, the medical school, the law school, the school of pharmacy, the dental school, the woman's medical school, the school of music. Garrett Biblical Institute, though under a separate management, is closely affiliated, and serves as the theological school of the university. The university has a permanent productive endowment of $3,960,000, with an annual income, exclusive of benefactions, of $560,762. The value of its buildings and grounds is $2,096,000. The college library contains 105,200 volumes and 30,000 pamphlets. The faculty numbers 291, and the number of students in degree-conferring departments is 3,863.

Nor'ton, Charles Eliot, an American author and educator, was born at Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 16, 1827. Young Norton graduated at Harvard College in 1846, and traveled in Europe and the far east for the following two or three years. He spent nine years abroad between 1849 and 1873. In 1864-68, he was joint editor with Lowell of the North American Review. In 1874 he was appointed professor of the history of art at Harvard, and in 1879 he became president of the Archaeological institute of America, holding that office for 11 years. He received the honorary degree of Lit. D. from Cambridge, England, and LL.D. from Harvard. He published and edited about 20 volumes. His writings largely dealt with art and sociology, as in his Recent Social Theories and Historical Studies of Church Building in the Middle Ages. He wrote lives or edited works of Dante, Michael Angelo, Carlyle, Emerson, Lowell, etc. He died, Oct. 20,1908.

Nor'walk, Ct., a town in Fairfield County, at the mouth of Norwalk River on Long Island Sound, 41 miles from New York. The city has a state armory, Fairfield County Hospital and Norwalk Hospital. Public and parish schools and a Carnegie Library are the principal educational institutions. It has the largest straw hat factory in the United States and large manufactories of felt hats and goods, woolens, shirts, shoes, silks, corsets, locks, door knobs, besides foundries and iron works. It has a good barbor and large oyster fisheries. Population of Norwalk, 6,954; of South Norwalk, 8,968—total, including Norwalk town, 24,-211.

Nor'way, the western and northernmost part of the Scandinavian peninsula, before November of 1905 united to Sweden only through having a common ruler; it is divided from Sweden by Keel Mountains, which run parallel to the coast from the north to 630

and then separate, the main division continuing to mark the boundary by a plateau from 2,000 to 4,000 feet wide. The higher peaks are Galdhopiggen, Glittertind, 8,379 feet; Snæhaetten, 7,566; and Lodalskaupen, 6,790. Bear, lynx and deer abound in these mountains, and the only inhabitants are the men and women who tend the large herds of cattle and sheep. On account of the Gulf Stream the winter on the coast is much warmer than in the interior, whereas the summer is much cooler. The largest cities are Kristiania, the capital (population 227,-626) ; Bergen, Trondhjem, Stavanger, Dram-men, Kristiansand and Fredrikstad. The hardiest grains and vegetables flourish, but the occupation of the people is mainly connected with the great fisheries. The mineral wealth has been practically exhausted since 1870, only a few mines being worked. Norway is divided into 20 districts, has an area of 124,130 square miles, and a population of over 2,240,032. It nominally is a limited monarchy, but actually, to all intents and purposes, almost is a free republic. The head of the government is a king, Haakon VII (q. v.), but his acts are limited by an appointed executive council of nine and one minister of state. The religion is Lutheran-ism, which still is the state-church of Norway. Non-Lutherans number only 53,000. One of the first peoples to settle Europe, their history does not, however, become free from myth until the 9th century, when the Lapps and Finns were found in the country by the Gothic descendants who then crossed the Baltic and settled there. For a long time it was a part of the kingdom of Denmark. Her history is intimately associated with that of the Norsemen, who were a part of her people, but from 1130 to 1240 the country suffered both in war and in commerce, and commenced a rapid retrograde movement which did not end until it was attached to Sweden in 1814. All titles of nobility were abolished in 1821, and in the struggle from 1872 to 1884 the right of veto was taken from the king. Then came a constitutional struggle of Norway against Sweden, Norway demanding consuls of her own and greater independence in her foreign policy. On June 7, 1905, the Norwegian legislature dissolved the union with Sweden, and on Oct. 16 the Swedish parliament ratified a treaty recognizing Norway's independence. In November Prince Karl of Denmark was called to the throne, and became king under the title of Haakon VII. See Carlyle's Early Kings of Norway and Boye-sen's History of Norway.

Nor'wich, Ct., shares with New London the honor of being county seat of New London County. It stands at the head of the Thames, the chief portion of the town lying on an eminence between the Yantic and She-tucket, which here unite. It manufactures paper, cotton and woolen goods, cords, pis-