OCEANIA

37o

O'CONNELL

the middle, and the Greenland and Labrador (a. v.) currents. The currents of the South Atlantic, are the South Equatorial, the Brazilian, and the South Connecting currents, which also form a circle with a Sargasso Sea in the middle. The currents of the South Pacific are the South Equatorial and Australian currents and of the North Pacific, the North Equatorial, Japan (Kuro Sivo) and Humboldt (Peruvian) currents. Charts showing the courses of these different currents will be found in almost any of the higher-grade school geographies, with some reference to their specific influences upon climatic conditions. Currents moving at a very slow rate of speed are called drifts. Oce'ania or Ocean'ica, the islands and archipelagoes between southeastern Asia and western America. They comprise Polynesia, the Malay Archipelago and Australasia, all known poetically as, together, the island-world of the Pacific. See Australasia, Australia, Hawaii, Malays, New Guinea, New Zealand and Polynesia.

Ocean-Routes. There are great ocean-routes just as there are great land-routes, great steamship-systems just as there are great railroad-systems. The principal ocean-routes run east and west, as do the principal railroad or land-routes. The one is, as it were, an extension or continuation of the other. The ocean-routes may be divided into two great divisions, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The Atlantic routes are many, connecting almost all ports of the eastern coast of the American continents and Europe. The Pacific routes are not so many and are not yet so much traversed, though the near future is sure to witness a great change in respect to this. The principal Pacific routes are the Puget-Sound route; the San Francisco - Honolulu - Yokohoma route; the Yokohoma-Hong-Kong-Singa-pore route to Europe, connecting there with the Atlantic routes; and the less traversed Puget Sound-Honoiulu-Sidney; San Francisco-Honolulu - Sidney ; Yokohoma - Hong-Kong-Sidney; Puget Sound-Manila; San Francisco-Manila; and Mid-Pacific routes. The Puget-Sound route is the shortest route between America and Japan and is traversed by about all vessels sailing for Yokohoma from Vancouver, Seattle, Tacoma or Portland and frequently by vessels sailing from San Francisco. The distance from Vancouver to Yokohoma by the Puget-Sound route is only 4,560 miles. The San Francisco-Honolulu-Yokohoma route is 7,560 miles or 3,000 miles longer than the Puget-Sound route. It has the advantage of the intermediate port of Honolulu and is much traversed. The San Francisco-Honolulu-Manila route is 9,005 miles, while the Puget Sound-Manila route is only a little over ,ooo miles.

Ocelot (o's'lSt), a leopard-like cat that has come from the tropics into some of our

southern states, is frequently met in southern Texas and occurs in lower Louisiana. It varies in length from two to three feet, and a full-grown animal reaches a weight of twenty-five pounds. Its fur is tawny or reddish-gray, marked with black spots, stripes and bands. The black color sometimes is in the form of a ring inclosing a

spot somewhat darker than the genera] color of the fur. The ocelot is an agile climber, spends a good deal of time on the lower branches of trees on the lookout for prey; and feeds chiefly on birds and small quadrupeds. It sometimes is known as the tiger-cat, and as a rule is bad-tempered.

O'Con'nell, Daniet, the Irish liberator, was born in County Kerry, Aug. 6, 1775. He was admitted to the Irish bar in 1794 and became famous as counsel, the counselor being one of the titles by which he was known among his followers. His large practice, worth, he said, $35,000 a year, was sacrificed for his country, when he took a leading part in Irish politics. He was head of the Roman Catholic party and contended for the admission of Catholics to Parliament, which he secured in 1829. In 1823 the Catholic Association formed by him became very powerful, with a large income. He entered Parliament in 1829, supporting the Whig party during the reform struggle, advocating free trade in corn, negro emancipation, the repeal of the laws against the Jews and universal suffrage. One of the greatest of orators, his remarkable speeches in Parliament, one of which lasted for seven hours, were equaled only by his popular addresses throughout Ireland. In 1840 he founded his famous Repeal Association, the members of which paid from $50 to 25 cents annual fees, and which in 1843 had an income of over $200,000. In 1844 O'Connell, with his son and five others, was tried for sedition and sentenced to imprisonment for one year and a fine of $10,000; and, though the house of lords soon set aside the verdict.

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