O'CONNOR                                                 *37I                                                      ODESSA

fourteen weeks in prison brought on the ailment of which he died. The new party of Young Ireland now separated from O'Con-nell because of his unwillingness to use force in obtaining the independence of his country, withdrawing from the Association. The potato famine followed. Sick with the sight of the suffering of his country, sad with the consciousness of failure and worn out with a struggle with disease, O'Connell left Ireland for Rome, longing to die there, but only reached Genoa, where he died May 15, 1847. His heart, at his.own request, was carried to Rome, and his body buried at Dublin, at the base of a tower 165 feet high. See Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland by Lecky; O'Connell in the Statesmen Series; and Life by his son.

0'Con'nor,Thomas Power, an Irish statesman, was born at Athlone, County Roscommon, Oct. 5, 1848. He was educated at the College of the Immaculate Conception, Athlone, and at Queen's College, Galway, graduating with honors in 18Ŏ6. He entered journalism in Dublin the next year, going three years later to London. In 1876 Mr. O'Connor published the first volume of his Life of Benjamin Disraeli, but later republished it as Lord Beaconsfield, condensing all his material into one volume. In 1880 he entered Parliament as member for Galway, and was returned both for Galway and Liverpool in 1885. He chose to accept the latter, and has represented one division of that city ever since. In 1883 he was elected president of the Irish National League of Great Britain. He has edited a Cabinet of Irish Literature, and published The Parnell Movement. In 1891 he issued a Life of Parnell. Mr. O'Connor still is a member of Parliament and is editor-in-chief of The Era.

Ocon'to, Wis., a town on Green Bay, at the mouth of Oconto River. It has large sawmills and a large trade in pine lumber. Population 5,629.

Octa'via, the sister of the Emperor Augustus, was the wife of Mark Antony, whom she married in 40 B. C to secure his reconciliation to her brother. Though she was noted for beauty, noble disposition and womanly virtues, Antony forsook her in a few years for Cleopatra. In 23 B. C. war broke out between Antony and Augustus, and he sent Octavia a divorce. She showed her noble character by caring for the children of Cleopatra with her own after the death of Antony. She died in n B. C. See Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra.

Octa'vian. See Augustus.

Octo'ber, from the Latin octo. meaning eight, was the eighth month of the year at Rome, but became the tenth when Numa changed the beginning of the year to the first of January. The Roman senate made many attempts to change the name.

Oc'topus, also called devilfish, a mollusk related to the squid. It has no shell, either

external or internal, and belongs to the class (Cephalopoda) called in general cuttlefish. It has eight arms provided with suckers, arranged around a central soft, baggy body. The squid (which see) has ten arms. The body of the octopus is rounded, with large staring eyes, and situated in the center of a membrane which serves to connect the bases of the arms. There are a number of species. They live amid coral reefs or rocks, and feed on mollusks and Crustacea. The common

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octopus of the West Indies and the Mediterranean is about nine feet long and weighs about sixty-eight pounds. It is eaten in the Mediterranean ports, and the flesh is also used for bait. On our Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras down, a species occurs. One species found in the Pacific is sixteen feet long and has a spread of about twenty-eight feet. The body is so small in comparison to the length of the limbs, that it measures only six inches in diameter and one foot in length. Some authorities declare the octopus is naturally timid and will not attack human beings, calling the lurid description in Victor Hugo's Toilers of the Sea a pure creation of fancy. Others affirm that pearl-divers and shell-collectors have fallen victim to them. Workers on the reef perhaps were frightened to death by sight of the monstrous, circling arms, staring eyes and powerful teeth.

O'der, one of the main rivers of Germany, rises in Moravia, crosses Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania, and finally empties through three channels into the Baltic. It is 550 miles long, but owing to its rapid fall and the sediment left at the mouth of its many tributaries navigation is difficult, and great expense is necessary to prevent its overflowing.

Odes'sa, the fourth city in Russia, a seaport of the Black Sea, about half way between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers. It is built facing the sea, on cliffs, with deep ravines, and with galleries hollowed out of