ONTARIO

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ONTARIO

times attacked by such insects as onion-maggots and onion-cutworms. Kerosene, ground-up tobacco-stems and nitrate of soda are used to overcome these pests, but it is well to root up the wilted plants and to rotate onions with other crops.

Onta'rio, Can., the wealthiest and most prosperous province of British America, is a triangle between St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers whose western base rests on Lake Huron. Its length east and west is 1,000 miles, its breadth 750 and its area 260,862 square miles, 40,354 being water. Ontario is nearly as large as France or Germany and nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom. It is bounded on the north by Keewatin and Quebec; on the east by Quebec and New York, from which it is separated by the St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario and Niagara River; on the south by Lake Erie; and on the west by Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River and Lakes Huron and Superior, while Minnesota impinges on Ontario from Lake Superior to Manitoba. The population is believed to be about 2,250,000, having been 2,182,947 in 1901. Eighty-seven per cent, or 1,858,787 were natives of the province. Of those born out of the province the most numerous were natives of the United Kingdom. The province contains about two fifths of the entire population of the Dominion, and, in contrast with Quebec, is an English and Protestant province. The Methodists in 1901 numbered 666,388; the Presbyterians 477,386; the Roman Catholics (chiefly French) 390,304; the Church of England 367,937; and the Baptists 116,320. There also were 32,600 Dunkards and Mennonites. Toronto (a. v.) is the provincial capital. Other important towns are Ottawa (a. v.), the capital of the Dominion; Hamilton; London; Kingston; Brantford; Guelph; and St. Catherine's. (See articles under these names.)

Surface and Drainage. Ontario's distinctive natural features are the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence. The surface is. an undulating plateau without considerable elevations. The Laurentian Hills, 1,200 feet high at most, run westward from the St. Lawrence near Kingston to north of Lake Simcoe and form the watershed that separates the streams flowing into the Great Lakes from those entering Hudson Bay and from Ottawa River and the St. Lawrence. The chief rivers are the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, with the Albany that enters Hudson Bay and the Niagara between Lakes Erie and Ontario. Besides the Great Lakes, which lie partly in the United States (Michigan wholly), Ontario has Lakes Nipissing, Nipigon, Simcoe, Rideau, Muskoka and (at the western boundary) the Lake of the Woods. The Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, its rapids, Niagara Falls and the myriad islands of Georgian Bay, a great eastward extension of Lake Huron, are world-

famous scenic features of Ontario. The northern coast of Lake Superior also is remarkable for beauty.

Natural Resources. Ontario has five leading sources of wealth : agriculture, mining, fisheries, forests and manufactures. About half of the province is covered with timber, chiefly pine, spruce, tamarack, oak and hickory. These and the waterways, natural and artificial, make lumbering a principal industry. The value of its products in 1903 was over $22,000,000. The quantity of white pine, it is claimed, exceeds that on any other area in North America. The Canadian spruce, the great pulpwood tree, is superior to the European variety. Fur-bearing animals, as the beaver, occur in considerable numbers in northern Ontario, where caribou, moose and other large game abound. Fisheries are important, the catch of whitefish, trout, pickerel and herring in 1903 being valued at $1,800,000. The province is rich in minerals, as antimony, arsenic, copper, iron, lead and plumbago. In 1903 the mineral yield was nearly $13,000,-000. Building-stone, gypsum and marble abound. Gold and silver exist, the latter very extensively along Lake Superior. The silver of Cobalt (a. v.) has attracted worldwide attention. The nickel deposits of Sudbury (a. v.) are the greatest in the world. The iron and the copper deposits are extensive. West of Lake Superior lies a gold region that is considered promising. The province is rich in salt wells, petroleum and natural gas. It has set 10,000,000 acres of forest aside as reserves.

Climate. Ontario's climate is said to resemble that of central Europe. It inclines to the extremes of cold in winter and heat in summer, but the dry air makes a bracing climate. Extreme cold is experienced only in the north, the Great Lakes in the south modifying the extremes of temperature.

Agriculture. In the south soils of black loam are of excellent quality and highly productive. Eastern Ontario, having the best land, is the garden of the province. The peninsula between Ottawa River and Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron is the richest, most densely peopled and most productive part of Ontario. Northern or New Ontario covering 141,000 square miles or 100,-000,000 acres, was until twenty years ago left to the trapper, the lumberman and the miner. Recently it has been found to have thousands of acres as fertile as any farms in old Ontario. This new district is north of the Canadian Pacific and of the Height of Land. It is in the vicinity of Lake Nipissing. Beyond it lies the great clay-belt extending from Lake Temiskaming almost across the province to James Bay and Albany River. It contains 15,680,000 acres of tillable land, is well-watered, and has forests of vast commercial value. The climate favors agriculture, for, though On-