ONTARIO                                                   1384                                                   ONTARIO

tario's winter is severest at the Height of Land, the cold diminishes as more northern latitudes are approached — so far as James Bay. Ten thousand immigrants a year — farmers, lumberers, miners—have for so many years been streaming into northern Ontario that it is claimed that it possesses nearly 250,000 inhabitants. It has four towns of 7,000 inhabitants each and 12 with one to four thousand people. It is to be traversed and developed by the Grand Trunk Pacific (g. v.), a new road. Other fertile sections are Rainy River Valley, the Temiskaming district and Wabigoon Valley. The crops of Ontario, the old as well as the new regions, are wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, potatoes and some tobacco. Niagara Peninsula is a vast fruit-farm, apples, grapes, peaches, pears and plums abounding, and grape-growing succeeds exceptionally well along Lake Erie. Stock-raising, dairy-farming and bee-culture are comparatively recent industries. Over a billion dollars have been invested in agriculture, the farmers number 235,000 and their annual return exceeds $200,000,000.

Commerce, Manufactures and Transportation. Numerous manufactures exist, chiefly due to the abundant water-power. The falls of the Ottawa and the rapids of the St. Lawrence are the chief sources of power, and the works at Decen and Niagara Falls (<?• '*•) giye Ontario the most extensive water-power works in the world. The power-plants at Niagara and at Decen can cheaply supply all power required by every place within 100 miles of each. The principal manufactures are lumber and its by-products, agricultural implements, iron and woodware, wagons, carriages, locomotives, railway cars, cottons, woolens, leather, furniture, flax, hardware, paper and soap. In 1901 thevalue of the manufactures approached $250,-000,000. Ontario has a network of railways, over 6,800 miles in 1902, which in summer are supplemented by the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence and the system of canals. The Sault Ste. Marie and the Welland are Ontario's principal canals, the former and the American one in seven months carrying three times the tonnage of Suez Canal, and the latter connecting Lakes Erie and Ontario, while the St. Lawrence connects Ontario with Europe as the Great Lakes link it to Duluth and Chicago. These waterways provide cheap transportation and economical distribution. The railways still more facilitate distribution. The Grand Trunk and the Canadian Pacific traverse Ontario, linking it to all Atlantic seaports of eastern North America and to Chicago, Minneapolis, Winnipeg and Victoria, B. C. The trade of Ontario in 1902 was $133,732,898, the imports amounting to $85,235,418 and the exports to $48,597,480. America and Britain share the bulk of Ontario's external trade, and its chief import is coal. It has a large

number of sound and successfully managed banking institutions.

Education. The school system seems admirably adapted to Ontario's educational requirements. The public schools are free. (It is optional with the trustees of high schools to impose fees.) Their teachers receive professional training in county model schools and provincial normal schools. Toronto, Ottawa and London Normal Schools have long rendered service, model schools for observation purposes being attached to them, and four more are ready for work. A faculty of education has recently been established in the University of Toronto, taking the place of the normal school. The university has appointed a professor of education, and will study the schools of the city. In places without high schools their work is performed by continuation classes (429). The Roman Catholic schools number 428. All schools are systematically inspected by professional inspectors. In 1905 Ontario had 6,381 public, high and superior schools; 10,284 teachers and 474,753 pupils; and spent $7,165,734 on education. Less than 9% of her inhabitants over five years old were illiterate. Among the institutions for higher education are McMaster, Ottawa, Queens, Toronto, Trinity and Victoria Universities; Knox, Ridley, Royal, St. Michael, Upper Canada and Wycliffe Colleges. There are colleges at Sandwich and Woodstock; women's colleges at Brantford, Hamilton, London, Osha-wa, St. Thomas and Whitby. There is also an agricultural college at Guelph. There also are schools for Indian children, schools of art and 117 free libraries under the care of the board of education. A minister of education, who always is a member of the provincial cabinet, controls the whole system. Government and History. Ontario is divided into 44 counties, themselves divided into townships and 98 electoral districts, including Algoma, Rainy River and Thunder Bay,— districts unorganized. Government is administered by a lieutenant-governor appointed by the Canadian governor-general for five years and assisted by a responsible ministry. There is a legislative assembly, of one house only, elected by ballot for four years. In 1901 it consisted of 98 representatives. Ontario sends 24 senators and 86 representatives to the Canadian parliament. In 1904 the provincial revenue was $6,128,-358, the expenditure $5,267,453. Ontario was explored by Champlain in 1615, hunted over by the French and visited by missionaries to its Indians. In 1763 Ontario passed from France to England, which in 1774 organized Quebec province, and in 1791 made Ontario Upper Canada or Canada West. In 1783 Ontario, then mainly a forest wilderness, received the Americans who preferred allegiance to Great Britain instead of the United States, and its actual career began. In 1841 it was united with Quebec, but was