Os'ler, William, M. D., LL. P., F. R.

C. P., since 1904 Regius Professor of Medicine, Oxford University, England, a physician and surgeon of acknowledged ability, some of the operations he has performed being simply marvelous. He was born at Bondhead, Ontario, July 12, 1849, and educated at Trinity College School, Port Hope, and at Trinity University, Toronto, passing to McGill College, Montreal, where lie graduated in 1872. He continued his I studies at University College, London, England, and at Berlin and Vienna, paying special attention to physiology and pathology. On his return to Canada in 1874, Dr. Osier was elected to the chair of these subjects at McGill and here, as later in the United States, he had a brilliant professional career. In October, 1884, he was appointed to the chair of clinical medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, passing thence, five years later, to Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Md., to take the professorship of the principles and practice of medicine and to become physician to Johns Hopkins Hospital. His success as a teacher is marked by ability and enthusiasm, and these qualities gained him his present prominent position at Oxford, besides many high honorary degrees. Dr. Osier believes that the real work of life is usually done by man's fortieth year and that after the sixtieth year it would be best for the world and best for themselves, if men rested from their labors. His writings inciude (besides addresses on Oliver Wendell Holmes and on Teacher and Student) The Principles and Practice of Medicine; Cerebral Palsies of Children; Lectures on Abdominal Tumors; Pectoris and Allied States; Chorea and Choreiform Affections; Cancer of the Stomach; Science and Immortality; other addresses and Counsels and Ideals — a volume of quotations from Dr. Osier's lectures and published work, made by a pupil.

Osman Digna {s-mn' dg'n), a leader of the Sudanese Arabs, was born at Suakim about 1836. His father and grandfather were slave-dealers; and the son followed the same calling, having marts for his slaves at Khartum and Berber on the upper Nile. He was the leader of the Sudanese in repeated outbreaks against the authority of the khdive, extending at intervals from 1881 to 1898, when at the battle of Om-durman his army was routed by Gen. Kitchener in command of the English and Egyptian forces, 11,000 Sudanese being slain. He was killed near Tokar in 1900.

Osman' Nubar, a Turkish general, was born at Tokat, Asia Minor, in 1832. He was educated at the military schools of Constantinople and became a cavalry officer. He fought in the Crimean War; took part in suppressing the rebellions in Syria (i860) ; in Crete (1867); and in Yemen (1874). He was commander of the fifth army corps in

the Turkish army at the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War in 1877; was commandant at Widdin; and, after being driven back from Scalevitze, he intrenched and maintained his army at Plevna almost four months, despite the fierce bombardment of the Russian forces. He was, however, forced to surrender, Dec. 10, 1878, at which time he still commanded 43,000 men. His sword was returned to him by the czar, and he was promoted by the sultan to be minister of war in 1878. He also was made governor of Crete. In 1894 he became grand marshal of the palace. He died at Constantinople. April 4, 1900.

Os'prey. See Fish-hawk.

Ossian (osh'ian), the great Gaelic poet, was, according to tradition, the son of Fionn MacCumhail, who lived in the 3d century A. D. Fionn gathered a band of warriors about him whose adventures constitute the literature of the Feinn. Ossian is said to have been carried away to the "isle of the ever-young," and when he returned, old and blind, to have told these stories of the Feinn. Ossian is best known through the work of James MacPherson, who in 1760, 1762 and 1763 published Fingal, a poem in six books; Temora, another poem, in eight books; and some shorter pieces, all claiming to be translations ot Ossian, the son of Fionn or Fingal. They brought him fame and wealth, and were translated into nearly every European language, Goethe, Schiller and Napoleon being among his admirers. But Dr. Johnson, with others, attacked them as forgeries, claiming that there was no Gaelic literature as ancient as the original of Fingal claimed to be. The truth seems to be that these translations were largely the work of MacPherson, and the Gaelic texts were prepared with or without the aid of his friends; but the heroic literature of the Gael on which his work was founded remains. See CL ian by Clerk and Reliques of Gaelic Poetry by Brooke.

Ostend {ŏst-ĕnd'), a watering place in Belgium, on the German Ocean, 77 miles northwest of Brussels. Its sea-wall, 3 miles long, 40 feet high and 105 feet broad, forms a fine promenade, and two wooden piers projecting on both sides of the harbor are used for the same puipose. It is the resort from July to September of 20,000 to 25,000 visitors from all parts of Europe. It is an important fishing-station, has a school of navigation, a lighthouse and manufactories of linen, sailcloth, candles and tobacco. It dates from 1072 ; was besieged by the Spaniards from July 7, 1601, to Sept. 20, 1604; surrendered to the allies in 1706 and to the French in 1745. Since 1865 it has been without fortifications. Population 41,698.

Osteopathy (s-t-ŏp'thy), a system of treating diseases by manipulation, which was invented by Dr. A. T. Sill, then of Baldwin, Kan., but later of Kirksville, Mo.,