OSTRICH                                                   1398                                                     OSWEGO

where a large school has been founded. The system takes its name from the theory that all diseases are "caused by some displacement of some bone which causes obstruction to the flow of one of the fluids." This trouble it is sought to remove by manipulation of the parts affected, permitting the "free operation of the fluids of the body," in which, it is asserted, all medicinal virtues by nature inhere. Special legislation in several western states permits the graduates of osteopathic schools to practice as licensed physicians.

Os'trich, the largest living bird, a native of the plains and deserts of Africa. The

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wings are small and not adapted for flight, but the bird is a swift runner. It is said to go at the rate of a mile a minute with a stride, when under full speed, of twenty-two to twenty-eight feet. The male ostrich reaches a height of seven feet and weighs from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds. It is called the camel-bird. The male has black feathers on the body, and white ones on the wings and tail. The latter are the plumes of greatest value. The female is plainer. The head and neck are unfeathered in both. There are three species of ostriches in Africa, they live in small flocks and are timid and difficult to approach. They are hunted on horseback, and advantage is taken of the fact that they

run in a circle. About ten eggs are laid in a hole in the sand, and sat upon by the male at night and by the female by day. These eggs are from five and one-half to six inches in longest diameter, and are equivalent to about twenty-four eggs of the common fowl. The shell is so thick and strong that it has been used as a water-vessel by South African tribes. In their native haunts ostriches feed on grass, herbs, insects and reptiles, but in captivity they swallow nearly everything not too large. Ostrich-farming is now carried on in Cape Colony, Australia, Buenos Ayres, the United States and other places where the African ostrich has been introduced. Great progress in ostrich-farming has been made in the last five years, in Arizona, California, Florida and Arkansas. The birds thrive on alfalfa, and where this pasturage is plentiful they have attained a larger growth than those imported from Africa, reaching a weight of 375 pounds and a height of1 8 or even 10 feet. The female seldom lays a fertile egg until she is 3$ years old. The nest is a round hole in the ground, which the male scoops out with his feet. At first the female may lay her eggs on the ground, and the male will roll them into the nest. Incubators are used successfully in hatching the eggs, the period of incubation being 42 days. The ostrich is plucked for the first time when six months old, and should be plucked about every eight months thereafter during its life-time. The only feathers removed are those of the wings and tail. The ostrich is a long-lived bird. It is claimed by some writers that they live to be a hundred years old. Some which are known to be forty years old are still breeding and producing feathers. Ostriches pair at four years and are then worth about $800 per pair. The yield of fea hers is about one and a half pounds yearly, worth $20 per pound. Consult Douglass : Ostrich-Farming in South Africa; Martin : Home-Life on an Ostrich-Farm; and Year Book of the Department of Agriculture


Oswe'go, N. Y., a city on Lake Ontario, at the mouth of Oswego River, 35 miles from Syracuse. It is divided by the river, which is crossed by three bridges, and has five miles of water frontage on the river and two and a half miles on the lake. It is the chief port on the lake, with a breakwater and lighthouse, and has five miles of wharves. Fort Ontario guards the harbor. This fort was rebuilt in 1905 at a cost of nearly half a million, and was made a four-company post. The city is built on slopes rising to 100 feet, and the shore of the lake is a bluff from 40 to 50 feet in height. The public buildings include the court house, city hall, state armory and public library. The river has a fall of 34 feet within the city, which is used as water-power for flour mills, knitting mills, foundries and iron