PALMYRA                                                        I4I4                                                          PAMLICO

the line of the heart, which when well-defined is said to signify strong and happy affection, but when broken it denotes inconstancy; the second, the line in the middle of the hand, is the line of the head and in the same way denotes strong or weak mental faculties; the third, the line at the base of the thumb, is the line of life, and its distinctness and clearness determine the length of life and liableness to illness. These are said to represent the trinity of existence: The heart, sensation; the head, intelligence; life, action. In the palm are also slight elevations called mountains or mounts. These are named after the planets from which they receive according to their greater or less development favorable or unfavorable influences. Each has its particular significance. The mount at the base of the first finger is the mount of Jupiter and, normally developed, indicates love of honor and happy disposition; the one at the base of the middle finger is the mount of Saturn and denotes prudence and wisdom; the ring finger the mount of Apollo and denotes love of the beautiful and noble aspirations; the little finger the mount of Mercury and denotes love of science, industry and commerce; beneath Mercury the mount of Mars denotes courage and resolution; at the wrist the mount of the moon signifies a dreamy disposition and morality; at the thumb the mount of Venus denotes taste for beauty and loving temperament. Besides the lines and mounts there are squares, stars, circles, triangles, crosses, rings, points, islands, forks, branches and chains, which according to their arrangement corroborate or modify the deductions made from the interpretation of the mounts and lines. The general form of the hand and nails also has significance.

Palmistry is of great antiquity. It came from India and played an important part among the Chaldeans, Assyrians and Egyptians. The Jewish people possessed thousands of palmists. Solomon speaks of the art as having been perfected among the Hebrews. It was cultivated by such philosophers as Plato and Aristotle and was practiced in Rome. Augustus was considered an accomplished practitioner. It was of great repute in Europe in the middle ages. Cardanus is the author of what is considered the best work on the subject. It needs hardly be added that only a keenly imaginative person could hope to become a successful palmister.

Palmyra (păl-mī'r), from 100 to 1300 A. D. a rich and beautiful city of Syria, stands in an oasis on the northern line of the Arabian desert, about- 150 miles from Damascus on one side and the Euphrates on the other. It was supposed to have been founded by Solomon, but probably was a caravan station of the Arabs. Dur-

ing the wars between Rome and Parthia the city acknowledged Roman supremacy and gained much by it, inasmuch as it was made the object of many favors by the Roman emperors. In 272 the attempt to found an independent empire was crushed by Aurelian, and it remained a Roman dependency until it submitted, with the rest of Syria, to the Moslems. It began its retrograde career in the 15 th century, and now is but a city of ruins. The ancient inhabitants tanned leather, controlled the desert caravan trade, and mined salt, gold and silver. See Ruins of Palmyra by Wood and Dawkins. See Zenobia.

Pa'lo Al'to, Cal., a town of Santa Clara County, 30 miles from San Francisco, is the seat of a university founded by Leland Stanford in memory of his son. It is intended to provide education entirely free, from the kindergarten stage to the highest post-graduate work, with schools of law, medicine and music. Several of the building are finished in Moorish architecture of yellow sand-stone. The university, which Was opened in 1801, has a faculty of 220 instructors with about 1,747 students; has already received $20,000,000 from Senator Stanford; and has an annual income of about $600,000. The town has eight churches, well-graded public schools, a high school, Manzanita Hall (a preparatory school for boys) and two preparatory schools for girls. Population, 4,436. See Stanford.

Palo Alto {pa'lo al'to), Battle of, an engagement between American troops under General Taylor and the Mexicans led by General Arista. It took place (May 8, 1846) in the woods in the southern part of Texas, about eight miles northeast of Brownsville. The battle lasted five hours, and the Americans were victorious. Palo Alto is from the Spanish, meaning Tall Timber.

Pamir (ŷ-mēr'), the center of the central Asian highland system, is a lofty plateau with an average elevation of 13,000 feet, and unites the western ends of the Himalayas and Tian Shan mountains with the Hindu-Kush. It is crossed by mountain ranges, many peaks rising to enormous heights; and although exposed to great extremes of heat and cold and to severe snow and sand storms, the Kirghiz shepherds tend their flocks there and it is often crossed by travelers. It is full of animal and bird life, and has large rivers and lakes, including Karakul, 120 square miles, and Shivakul, 100 square miles. The Pamirs are often referred to as "the roof of the world," from their high elevation.

Pamlico (pm'l-kō) Sound, a small arm of the Atlantic Ocean on the coast of North Carolina, is separated from the ocean by long, narrow islands of sand. It is very shallow, and is about 75 miles long by 10 to 25 wide.