PAMPAS

I4I5

PANAMA CANAL

Pam'pas, properly the large, treeless plains of the Argentine Republic in South America. They rise in terraces from the coast to the foot of the Cordilleras, and extend about 2,000 miles long by 500 miles broad. The northeastern portion is very fertile and the pampas are used almost exclusively for grazing purposes, but the rest is barren and dry, abounding in strips of desert, the soil being of sandy clay. The level districts of Peru, 180,000 square miles in extent and covered by trees, are also called pampas.

Pam'pas Qrass, covering the pampas of the Argentine, is veryjhardy, beautiful in appearance and often used for orna-m e n t. The leaves are from six to eight feet long, and the flowering stems, with large spikes of silvery-white flowers, are from t e n to 14 feet in height. The plant is now cultivated in California for the flower plumes, which are used in decorations by florists.

Pan, according to the Greek story, is considered the god of pastures, forests and flocks and is represented as having horns, a goat's beard, a crooked nose, pointed ears, a tail and goat's feet. The worship of Pan began in Arcadia, and in time extended all over Greece, reaching Athens last. He was worshiped by offerings of cows, goats, lambs, milk, honey and wine. He was also supposed to have been very fond of music, being credited as the inventor of the syrinx or pandean pipes. The Romans have identified him as their god Faunus. The story of his death, coincident with the birth of Christ, is finely treated by Milton, Rabelais, Schiller and Mrs. Browning.

Panama (păn'-mā'). A small republic comprising the narrowest part of Central America, between Costa Rica and Colombia. It formerly belonged to Colombia, but seceded in November, 1903. It is 35 miles wide, and has an area of 31,571 square miles. The population is 400,000. The isthmus is traversed by a range of mountains running between the Atlantic and the Pacific, and many streams, some of considerable size, notably the Tuira (160 miles), flow into both oceans. The trading ports are Aspin-wall (or Colon) and Panama, and the exports are hides, tallow, indigo, caoutchouc, coffee, vanilla, gold-dust and tortoise shell. A railway crosses the isthmus from Colon

to Panama. The capital is Panama (population 30,000).

Panama Canal. The plan of uniting the Atlantic and Pacific by means of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien, now Panama, was first talked of as early as 1520 and was much discussed during the 16th century. Two centuries ago definite and complete drawings were made by the Dutch, but nothing was done unt-'l Ferdinand de Lesseps called a congress of nations at Paris in 1879 to discuss the feasibility of cutting through Panama. A concession was bought and on Feb. 28, 1881, the first force of workers landed at Colon. Up to 1888 immense sums of money had been borrowed and the work was not one fifth completed. When further borrowing became impossible and the company was burdened with interest charges on the capital loaned it, owing at that time almost $370,000,000, it went into liquidation. In 1893 the Colombian government granted an extension of time for the formation of a new company to construct the canal. Nothing, however, was accomplished, and in 1903 the United States purchased the rights and properties of the company for $40,000,000. A treaty was negotiated with the Colombian government by which the United States was granted a leasehold title for 100 years to the canal route and zone, with the privilege of renewing at the option of the United States. An initial $10,000,000 and a yearly rental of $250,000 after the lapse of nine years were to be paid to Colombia. This treaty was ratified by the United States senate on March 17, but was rejected by the Colombian senate on Aug. 17. As a result of this action the District of Panama seceded from Colombia and established the republic of Panama on Nov. 3, 1903. The new republic was officially recognized by the United States on Nov. 13, and a new canal treaty between the United States and Panama was signed on Nov. 18, 1903. By the terms of this treaty the payments of money were the same as provided in the Colombian treaty. The United States was granted the exclusive right to construct, maintain and operate any system of communication by canals or railroads between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. For this purpose a zone ten miles in width, the cities of Panama and Colon with their harbors excepted, is granted to the United States in perpetuity, with all sovereign rights. In Panama and Colon the United States is given the right of eminent domain over lands which may be necessary for canal work or for construction of public or sanitary works, and lands for coaling stations are granted. The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the republic of Panama. The United States is granted the right to use its police and its land and naval forces

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pampas grass