PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION            I4l6                                            PANGOLIN

and to establish fortifications for the protection of the canal and the ships using it. The canal is to be neutral at all times and open to all nations on uniform terms. The payment to the Panama Canal Company

and the initial payment to the republic of Panama were made in May, 1904. The property was transferred to the United States, and its authority in the canal zone was established in the same month.

By act of Congress the construction of the canal was placed in charge of a commission appointed by the president.

The enterprise was promptly organized and the work begun. After investigation and reports by the board of consulting engineers and the canal commission, it was decided by Congress that the canal should be of the lock type rather than a sea-level canal. The Atlantic end of the canal begins in Limon Bay near Colon, runs to the southern shore of the bay, a distance of 4J miles, and then passes through low ground to Gat un. The width of the channel at this point is 500 feet, the depth 45 feet. At Gatun there is a gap in the hills through which flows the Chagres River. Here a dam is to be constructed across the entire gap, this dam to be 135 feet above the sea-level and create a lake to be known as Lake Gatun. Here there are to be three duplicate locks, each 900 feet in length, 95 feet wide and with a lift in each lock of 28J feet. Lake Gatun will form the summit-level of the canal, which will be 85 feet above the sea-level. The length of the lake will be 30 miles, of which 23 miles, will be in the course of the canal. Through a distance of about 10 miles above the dam to Bohio, the lake will have a depth of nearly 75 feet, and beyond that the depth of 45 feet will be obtained by excavation. For about 16 miles above Gatun locks the channel will be 1,000 feet wide or more, and beyond that the minimum width will be decreased as the amount of excavation

required increases. Through the great Cule-bra cut the channel will be 200 feet wide. The summit-level will end at Pedro Miguel, where there will be duplicate locks with a lift of 31 feet forming connection with Sosa Lake, 5 5 feet above the sea. The channel thence is through the lake for five miles to Sosa Hill, where there will be two locks with lifts of about 31 feet each reaching the tide-level of Panama Bay. The total length of the canal will be 49.72 miles. The estimated cost of the canal is $138,000,000. It is expected that the canal will be completed and open to navigation in 1914 or 1915.

Pan-American Exposition, a fair for exhibiting the resources and products of the Americas and their outlying islands, was incorporated by the legislature of New York and endorsed by the Federal Congress. The exhibition was held between May and November of 1901, the site being Buffalo, N. Y. Congress voted $500,000 in aid of the project, and voted to loan interesting exhibits from Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum and other departments of the government. The grounds covered 350 acres. Power was conveyed from Niagara Falls by electric wires, and the exposition was successful in displaying many important electrical inventions to date. Its main court, the Court of Fountains, was 500 feet wide by 2,000 long. The stadium, in which athletic games were held, seated about 10,000 persons. A terrible tragedy happened in the attempt on the life of President Mc-Kinley (a. v.), which unhappily proved fatal Sept. 14. In other respects the exposition proved highly successful.

Pandora (pn-dō'r), according to the Greek legend, was the first woman on earth. When Prometheus' stole the fire from heaven, Zeus caused a woman to be made to bring trouble to man, and sent her to Prometheus' brother, Epimetheus. A later story relates that Pandora possessed a box in which were all men's ills and troubles, which escaped on the box being opened. Still another story has it that the box contained all blessings, and Pandora, on opening it, allowed all to escape but hope.

Pan'golin, the name given to any one of the scaly ant-eaters belonging to the genus Manis. They are mammals, but the shape of their bodies and the presence of scales

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