PEDAGOGICS                                   1440                                      PEDOMETER

Nervous System, Halleck; Education as a Science, Bain; Education, Spencer; Lectures on Teaching, Fitch; Interest in its Relation to Pedagogy, Ostermann (translation by Shaw) ; Contributions to the Science of Education, Payne; Education of Man, Froebel. The Transactions of the National Educational Association, Barnard's American Journal of Education and many state reports contain mines of information on theoretical and practical pedagogy.

Methodology or the art of applying educational principles in teaching has called forth a great variety of treatises on special and general methods. They usually treat of the formal methods of arousing the child's interest, of presenting the subject-matter in the different stages of the child's development, of conducting the recitation, of cultivating the various physical and mental activities of the child and of the essentials in conditions and means. Methodology usually includes more or less of a discussion of the principles involved in the methods presented. The following books treat the subject in an instructive and practical way : Method in Education, Roark: School Management and Methods, Baldwin; School Management, White; Methods of Teaching, Swett; Talks on Teaching, Parker; and Hours with my Pupils, Phelps.

School Organization and Management. These, as somewhat distinct problems, call for elaborate treatment. They embrace plans of organization, sources of revenue, selection of school sites, erection of school buildings, seating, ventilating, lighting and sanitation; courses of study, choice of textbooks, classification of pupils, preparation and examination of teachers, general supervision of the school, the authority of the teacher, management of classes, rules of conduct, modes of punishment, presentation of motives and relation of teacher and pupils. The student is referred to the following authorities for general treatment of these problems : School Economy, Wickersham; School Supervision, Payne; School Interests and Duties, King; School Management, White; School Management, Kellogg; Theory and Practice of Teaching, Page; Systems of Education, Gill; and School Hygiene, Kotelmann (Bergstrom's translation).

The History of Education. A liberal professional preparation for teaching is hardly possible without a comparative study of educational progress as shown in past and present educational systems. It may take either of two general forms: That of education as a whole or that of formal pedagogy in particular. If the former, the field includes a history of the growth of all branches of learning and of the various institutions of civilization in general; if the latter, it is limited to the development of educational doctrine and

the growth of systems and methods. There are commonly recognized five great epochs in educational history: the Oriental, the Classical, the Christian before the Reformation, the Reformation and the Modern Epoch. Each epoch is rich in instructive material, throwing light upon nearly every problem which the teacher meets and helping him to a more comprehensive view of the methods by which they may be solved The following are among the standard texts on this subject: Compayré, Painter, Seeley and Williams. See, also, Boone's Education in the United States, Swett's ^.merican Public Schools, Klem's European Schools, Quick's Educational Reformers, Laurie's Rise and Early Constitution of Universities, Lang's Great Teachers of Four Centuries, Browning's Educational Theories, Butler's Great Educators, Winship's Great American Educators and the histories of education in the different states of the Union, published by the United States bureau of education.

The methods of teaching as well as the subject-matter must vary with the age and capacity of the pupil. In the earlier years nature-study supplies an abundance of material which may be used to introduce the elements of knowledge. The ability to correlate these elements in a systematic way and, in the advancing grades, gradually to differentiate them into the particular branches of knowledge developing from them requires great skill on the part of the teacher. A brief survey of nature-study and a few other subjects, with suggestions for teaching them will illustrate scientific method.

Among other titles in this work relating to the general subject of pedagogics are Adolescence; Apperception; Arithmetic; Association op Ideas; Child-Study; Correlation op Studies; Drawing; Education, History op; Education, Modern; Feeling; Froebel; Games; Geography, Teaching of; Grammar; Habit; History, Teaching of; Interest; Kindergarten; Language-Study; Libraries, How to Use; Literature for Children; Manual Training; Memorizing; Mental Discipline; Nature-Study; Normal Schools; Penmanship; Physical Education; Psychology for Teachers; Reading, Teaching of; Schools; School Excursions; School Sanitation; School Organization; Self-Activity; Spelling; Study; Teaching, Method of; and Teachers' Institutes.

Ped'icel, the stalk of an individual flower. When a flower has no pedicel, it is said to be sessile.

Pedom'eter, an instrument used for measuring walking distances by marking the number of steps taken. It is also so constructed as to mark the revolutions of a carriage wheel when attached to it.