PEDRO I

I44I

PEISISTRATOS

Pe'dro of Brazil, born near Lisbon in 1798, dying there in 1834, was the first emperor of Brazil and the second son of John VI of Portugal. In 1807 he fled to Brazil with his parents on Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, and became prince regent of Brazil on his father's return to Portugal See Brazil and Portugal.

Pedro II, son of the foregoing, was born at Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 2, 1825, became king on his father's abdication in 1831, and was declared' of age in 1840. During his long reign he was distinguished by his love of learning and scholarly tastes, and manifested no small degree of devotion to the welfare and prosperity of his people; but in the revolution of 1889, when Brazil was declared a republic, he was forced to abdicate and withdraw to Europe. He died at Paris in 1891. See Brazil and Portugal.

Pedro the Cruel, king of Castile and Leon; was born at Burgos, in Spain, Aug. 30, 1333. He was the only legitimate son of Alfonso XI, whom he succeeded in 1350. Three years after his accession he married Blanche de Bourbon, sister of the French king, but soon deserted her for his mistress, Dona Maria of Portugal, whose relatives he raised to the highest offices in his kingdom. Among many other victims of his cruelty were two of his natural brothers, whom he put to death. At length an insurrection was raised against him, under the leadership of his natural brother Henry. This he suppressed in spite of the excommunication of the pope, and the remainder of his reign was devoted to establishing his power and authority over his enemies and to long and bloody wars with Aragon and Granada. In 1366 Henry, who had fled to France, returned at the head of a body of exiles and revived his claims to the throne. Henry was supported by the pope, by_ Aragon and by France; but Pedro, by promises of money and territory, secured the assistance of Edward the Black Prince, and totally defeated Henry at Navarrete, April 13, 1367. Pedro so disgusted Edward by his cruelty to the vanquished, that the latter returned to France with his army, refusing any further alliance with a prince of such a character. In the autumn Henry returned with an additional force, the people flocking to his standard. Pedro's army was completely routed at Montiel, March 13, 1369, and he himself taken prisoner. He was carried to a tent, where a single combat took place between him and Henry, in which Pedro was slain.

Pedun'cle, the general stalk of a flower cluster.

Peeks'kill, N. Y., a pretty and historic borough in Westchester County, on the Hudson River and on the New York Central Railroad, 43 miles north of New York City. It has a number of manufactories, stove-works, foundries, machine shops, shirt

and cigar factories, flour mills and blank-book and bookbinding establishments. The town has many fine churches, schools, a public library, military academy, convent and an Episcopal school for young women. Population i5>245-

Peel, Sir Robert, an eminent English statesman, was born near Bury, in Lancashire, Feb. 5, 1788. He entered the house of commons in 1809 as a Tory, and immediately began to show the diligence and prudence that were marked features of his character. He held the office of secretary for Ireland from 1812 to 1818, and in this position displayed so unfriendly a spirit toward the Roman Catholics that they gave him the nickname of Orange Peel, which clung to him through life. From 1818 to 1822 Peel was out of office ; but in the latter year he re-entered the ministry as home secretary, though in 1827 he retired. As home secretary he distinguished himself by a reorganization of the London police (q. v.) and by several other important measures. In 1820 Peel, as a member of the Wellington cabinet, proposed the bill for Catholic emancipation, and thereby separated himself from the Tory leaders. Next year (1830) the Wellington-Peel ministry was succeeded by a Whig ministry under Earl Grey, and in 1832 the reform bill was passed in spite of Peel's vigorous opposition. The general election of 1841 resulting in a decided victory for protection, Peel became prime minister with a large majority in both houses; but such was the demand for "cheap corn," that Peel was forced to yield and consent to the repeal of the corn laws. Peel retired in June, 1846, and, as a member of Parliament for Tamworth, generally acted with the Whigs, whose free-trade principles he had fully accepted. He died at London in consequence of a fall from his horse, July 2, 1850. Peel declined a peerage and the order of the garter, and was universally respected for ability as well as patriotism and high moral principle. See Guizot's Robert Peel; Peel by J. R. Thurs-field in the Twelve English Statesmen Series; and Morley's Life of Cobden.

Pegasus J,pěg'-sŭs), in Grecian mythology, the winged horse which sprang from the blood of Medusa (q. v.) when she was slain by Perseus. He is said to have received his name because he first made his appearance beside the springs {pegai) of Oceanus. When Bellerophon sought to catch Pegasus for his combat with the Chimasra, he was advised to sleep in the temple of Minerva, and during his sleep the goddess appeared to him and gave him a golden bridle, with which he caught Pegasus, and by her aid overcame the Chimra.

Peisistratos (pī-ss1-tr-tos) was a tyrant of Athens, the date of whose birth is uncertain, but who died in 527 B. C. Peisistratos gained his influence at the first by posing