PEKIN                                                       1442                                                     PELICAN

as the protector of the poor. He identified himself, therefore, with the party of the hills. He claimed that his life was in danger from the attacks of his enemies, showed wounds which probably were made for the purpose, and was granted a bodyguard. Once in possession of an armed force, Peisistratos seized the citadel. He governed Athens well and wisely, and twice submitted to exile only to regain his power. The word tyrant as applied to him means little more than ruler; and became obnoxious only at a later date.

Pekin' or Peking', the northern capital of the Chinese empire, is situated on a sandy plain 100 miles from the sea (Gulf of Pe-chili) and 60 from the great Chinese wall. The city consists of two parts : The northern or Tartar city and the southern or Chinese city. The northern city is surrounded by a wall 60 feet high and from 40 to 50 wide, and the southern city by a wall 30 feet high and from 15 to 25 feet wide. The wall and moat are a little over 20 miles in length. Not counting the cross-wall, the entire circuit measures about 21 miles, inclosing an area of about 25 square miles. Peking has sixteen gates, over each of which is raised a tower 100 feet high and of imposing ap-

«earance. Within the northern city is the sze-kin-ch'ing or Prohibited City, with a circumference of two miles, where the emperor has his residence. Peking has railway communication with Tien-tsin and with the Gulf of Pe-chili at or near Taku.

Peking is one of the most ancient cities of the world. On the same site stood the metropolis of the feudal state of Yen, whose history can be traced back to the 12 th century B. C. When Kublai Khan became emperor of all China in 1280 A. D., he made Peking his capital, where he was found by Marco Polo. In the language of Dr. Williams " Peking stands to-day, like the capitals of the ancient Roman and Byzantine empires, upon the debris of centuries of buildings." But little was known of the city, however, until i860, when the English and French armies appeared before its walls and compelled the emperor to conclude the treaty of Tien-tsin or have his capital destroyed. Since that time the Chinese government has permitted ambassadors of other nations to have a residence in Peking, although they are not allowed to enter Tsze-kin-ch'ing or Forbidden City. See Boxer Rising and Chinese Empire. The population is estimated at 700,000. See Williamson's Journeys in North China; Williams' The Middle Kingdom; and Martin's The Siege in Peking.

Pekin (pe'kÔn), 111., city and county-seat of Tazewell County, about 11 miles from Peoria. It is in a fertile, agricultural section, the chief products of which are corn and wheat, and in the vicinity are extensive coal deposits. Pekin manufactures agricultural implements, wagons and carriages, fertilizers,

organs, furniture, foundry products, ammonia, alcohol, beet-sugar, glucose, brick and tile. There are admirable public schools and a free library. Pekin has the service of several railroads, and has freight and passenger traffic by steamboat with ports on Illinois River. Population 9,897-

Pelas'gians, a term applied to the most ancient inhabitants of Greece, Italy and some portions of Asia Minor. In Homer the Pelasgi seem to have been an unimportant tribe living in Thessaly. Herodotus seems to regard them as a race of barbarians who had occupied Hellas prior to the Hellenes. Thucydides, on the other -hand, says that they were the most numerous of the various races that inhabit Greece. Amid such conflicting testimony it is impossible to form any definite conclusions in reference to the Pelasgians; but we are at least justified in regarding them as an active and stirring people, chiefly intent upon agricultural pursuits. Yet they were no less brave and determined when attacked and driven to self-defense.

Pelew' Islands, a group of about twenty-five islands (now under the protection of Germany), lying southeast of the Philippines in the Pacific, at the western extremity of the Caroline Archipelago. These islands are mountainous, wooded and surrounded with coral reefs. Total area, 170 square miles. The inhabitants, about 10,000 in number, belong to the Ma^ay race. The soil is fertile, and the climate healthy. The Pelew Islands were discovered by the Spaniards in 1543, and sold to Germany in 1899. Pel'ican, a water-bird with webbed feet and a long bill having a pouch on the under

surface. The upper part of the bill hooks over the lower. Pelicans are large birds with powerful wings, related to the cormorants and the gan-nets. They occur in the Old and New Worlds, being mostly confined to the tropics and the warm parts of the temperate regions. They live upon fish, and at times the pouch on the lower jaw is greatly distended with stored fish to be eaten at leisure or carried home to the young. In southern California and Florida the brown pelican is a familiar object. This bird is about fifty inches long with a wing-spread of more than six feet, a bill a foot long and a purple pouch. After becoming three years old the bird is of varying shades of brown, the neck a very dark

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