9HILĘ                                                       I46O                                  PHILIP THE BOLD

tains nearly 3,000 acres, and is bisected by the Schuylkill through its entire length of ten miles. In this park is the first established zoological garden in the United States. Fairmount water-works supply the city with over 100,000,000 gallons of water daily. The public schools, in which there are over 3,500 teachers and 150,000 pupils, are maintained at an annual cost of $5,250,000, and there are over 35,000 pupils m Roman Catholic schools. Special schools are conducted for children who fail to maintain their required standing in school. There also are cooking schools, evening schools, an elementary manual training school and an industrial art-school. Williamson Trade School, near the city, received an endowment of nearly $2,000,000, and Drexel Institute, a day and night school, gives technical courses in chemistry, architecture, mechanical engineering, cooking, dressmaking and other crafts ard arts. The oldest art-school in this country is the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in this city. Philadelphia is the seat of Girard College (a. v.) and of other highly endowed educational institutions, including the University of Pennsylvania, La Salle (Roman Catholic) College, ten medical and law colleges, four dental, several schools of pharmacy and 50 hospitals. Philadelphia is the second manufacturing city in the Union, both in persons employed and in extent and variety of productions. An aggregate capital of $520,178,654 is employed in manufacturing, and the value of the productions is $600,000,000 annually, while 250,000 persons are employed. The building of locomotives and the manufacture of iron and steel implements, carpets, woolens, upholstery goods and cotton goods employ about 125,000 workmen and produce $350,000,000 yearly, and there are sugar refineries, oil refineries, breweries and great chemical works, besides a very considerable foreign commerce.

Philadelphia was founded in 1682 by William Penn, made the capital of Pennsylvania in the following year, and was the central point of the colonies during the War of Independence. In Carpenter's Hall, which is still preserved, the first congress met in 1774, and in Independence Hall the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. Here the Federal Union was adopted in 1778, and here the constitution was framed in 1787. Philadelphia was the capital of the Federal Union from 1790 to 1800. Population 1,549,008. See Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania, University of. Consult Philadelphia and Its Environs.

Philę (Jt'le), an island in the Nile, near Assuan and south of Syene in Nubia. It is situated near the first cataract, and is a small granite rock, fringed with rich

verdure, about 1,200 feet long and 450 broad, almost covered with ancient buildings of great architectural beauty. The kiosk, Pharaoh's bed, a roofless hall, belongs to the Greek and Roman period, and consists of fourteen great columns with capitals of various patterns, joined at the lower part by solid walls, 63 feet long and 48 feet wide. The great temple of Isis, to whom the island was sacred, was built by the Ptolemies. It contains representations of the birth, bringing up, death and embalmment of Osiris. It was converted into a Christian church in A. D. 557. See Assuan Dam.

Philemon (fīle'mun) and Baucis (ba'sļs), an old married couple in Phrygia, famed in antiquity for true love and splendid hospitality. Ovid, the Latin poet, tells how once Jupiter and Mercury wandering through Phrygia, both in human form, presented themselves at many a door as weary travelers seeking rest and shelter, and the inhospitable inhabitants would not receive them. At last they came to the small thatched cottage of Philemon and Baucis, and were received most hospitably. Philemon placed a seat and Baucis, bustling and attentive, spread a cloth upon it and begged the visitors to be seated. The fire was kindled and food prepared, and a beechen bowl was filled with warm water that the guests might wash. Wine was served with the food, and while the repast proceeded Philemon and Baucis were astonished that the wine, as fast as poured out, renewed itself in the pitcher. Thus they recognized their divine gues+s, iney immediately fell upon their knees and begged forgiveness for their poor entertainment. Jupiter spoke of the inhospitable treatment that they had received from their neighbors, then led them to a nearby hill where they saw their own humble cottage urned into a magnificent temple while their neighbors were destroyed by a flood which Jupiter caused. Philemon and Baucis, in accordance with their own expressed wish, were made priests and guardians of the temple, where they served many years, and left this life at one and the same hour.

Phil'ip the Bold, son of John the Good of France and founder of the second and last ducal house of Burgundy (q. v.), was born on Jan. 15, 1342. He was present at the battle of Poitiers in 1356, when only 14,-and displayed such heroic courage in risking his own life to save his father's, that he earned the title of Le Hardi or The Bold. He shared his father's captivity in England, and on his return to France in 1360 received as the reward of his bravery the duchy of Touraine and, in 13Ŏ3, the duchy of Burgundy also. Flanders, Artois, Rethel, Ne-vers and the county of Burgundy fell to him by the death of his father-in-law, the count of Flanders, in 1384, and his firm and