wise government quickly won esteem and affection from his subjects. He encouraged arts, manufactures and commerce, and his territory was one of the best governed in Europe. During the minority and imbecility of Charles VI of France, his nephew, he acted as regent of that kingdom, and displayed great wisdom and ability both in preventing insurrection within the state and in defending it against the attacks of the English. He died on April 27, 1404.

Philip the Qood, son of John the Fearless and grandson of Philip the Bold, was born at Dijon, June 13, 1396. In order to avenge the death of his father, who had been assassinated on the bridge of Montereau at the instigation of the dauphin (afterward Charles VII), when he succeeded to the duchy he entered into an alliance with Henry V of England, recognizing him as the rightful regent of France and heir to the throne after Charles VI's death. This agreement, although it disregarded the terms of the Salic law, was sanctioned by the king and the states-general of France in the treaty of Noyes in 1420; but the dauphin refused to accept it and took up arms. He was, however, defeated at Crevant and Verneuil, and driven beyond the Loire. Some time after this, on account of insults from the English viceroy, Philip made a final peace with Charles, who gladly accepted the hard conditions prescribed by Philip. The English in revenge committed great havoc among the merchant navies of Flanders (a. v.), which so irritated Philip that he declared war against them and, with the assistance of the king of France, gradually expelled them from their French possessions. Under Philip, Burgundy was the most prosperous and tranquil state in Europe; and in spite of the several insurrections in Ghent and in Bruges, caused by the imposition of heavy taxes, he was greatly beloved by his people. He died at Bruges, July 15, 1467. See Barante's History of the Dukes of Burgundy and the House of Valois.

Philip II of France, called Philip Augustus on account of his great abilities and successful administration, was born on August 21, 1165, and died at Nantes, July 14, 1223. He was crowned joint king with Louis VII, his father, in 1179, and on the death of the latter in the year following he came into full possession of the kingdom. He was one of the greatest monarchs of the Capetian dynasty, while he confirmed his power by marrying Isabella of Hainault, the last direct descendant of the Carlovingians. On the accession of Richard the Lion-hearted (a. v.) to the throne of England in 1189, Philip and he set out together on the third crusade. After staying three months in the Holy Land, Philip returned home, binding himself by a solemn oath not to molest Richard's dominions; but very soon after his arrival in France he invaded Normandy while

Richard was a prisoner in Germany. Richard's release from imprisonment and his return to England occasioned a war between the two monarchs, which continued till 1199, when peace was secured through the mediation of Pope Innocent III. Richard dying shortly after, war again broke out between France and England on account of the rival claims of King John (g. v.) and Arthur, his nephew, to Richard's French possessions. Philip espoused Arthur's cause, and after the murder of that prince took possession of Normandy, Maine, Anjou and Touraine, and added them to his dominions. The great victory of Bouvines, which Philip won, Aug. 29, 1214, over the English and Emperor Otho of Germany, firmly established his throne, and he was able to devote the remainder of his life to reforms of justice and to building and fortifying Paris.

Philip IV, surnamed Le Bel or The Fair, king of France, was born at Fontainebleau in 1268. He succeeded his father, Philip the Rash, in 1285, and by his marriage with Queen Joanna of Navarre he obtained Navarre, Champagne and Brie. The chief feature of his reign was his contest with Pope Boniface VIII, which grew out of his attempt to levy taxes from the clergy, which the pope directed them not to pay. In 1300 Philip threw the papal legate into prison and summoned the three estates of France — clergy, nobles and burghers — to which Boniface replied with the bull of Unam Sanctam. Philip caused the bull to be publicly burned, and confiscated the property of the prelates who had sided with the pope. Boniface then excommunicated him, but Philip sent William of Nogaret to Rome, who, with the aid of the Colonnas, seized and imprisoned the pope. Though released after a few days by a popular rising, Boniface soon afterwards died. In 1305 Philip obtained the elevation of one of his own creatures to the papal chair as Clement V and seated him at Avignon, which was the residence of the head of the church for 70 years thereafter This period of papal history is often called "the 70 years' captivity." Philip compelled the pope to condemn the Templars in 1310 and to decree the abolition of the order two years later. They made a heroic defense, but were condemned and burned by thousands, their wealth being appropriated by the cruel and rapacious Philip. Jacques de Molay, the grandmaster, was burned on March 18, 1314, and at the stake he is said to have summoned Philip to appear before the judgment seat of Alimighty God within a year and a day and the pope within 40 days. Whether this summons was actually uttered or not, both the pope and the king died within the periods assigned, the latter's death occurring on Nov. 29, 1314. Philip