PHILIP VI                                                 1468                                                  PHILIP II

strove for the suppression of feudalism and the introduction of Roman law.

Philip VI (of Valois), king of France, was born in 1293, and became regent on the death of Charles IV in 1328. Philip remained regent during the pregnancy of Charles' widow, but when she was delivered of a daughter, he had himself crowned, the Salic law excluding females from the throne. Philip's right was disputed by Edward III (g. v.) of England, grandson of Philip IV, whose mother was the sister of Charles IV. Edward claimed that although his mother could not herself inherit the crown of France, he, as her son, might. In support of this claim, weak as it was, Edward declared war against Philip in 1337, which was the beginning of the long wars between England and France, which were brought to a conclusion only by the victories of Joan of Arc (q. v.), nearly 100 years later. (See Hundred Years' War.) In 1347 a truce was concluded between the two, which continued till after Philip's death on Aug. 22, 1350.

Philip of Mac'edon, father of Alexander the Great, was born 382 B. C, and came to the throne in 360 B. C. He was surrounded with many difficulties and dangers, all of which soon disappeared before his decision, energy and wise policy. In one year he secured the safety of his kingdom, and was ready to enter upon a policy of aggression, his object being to reduce every Hellenic state. The Greek towns on the coast of Macedonia were the first objects of attack. In Thrace he captured the small town of Crenides, which, under its new name of Philippi, soon acquired great wealth and fame. After a few years of comparative leisure he advanced into Thessaly, and ultimately to the Pass of Thermopylae, which he did not attempt to force, as it was strongly guarded by Athenians. After capturing all the towns of Chalcidice, the last of which was the city of Olynthus, he made peace with the Thracians and, next year, with the Athenians. It was during this siege of Olynthus that Demosthenes delivered the famous orations in which he sought in vain to arouse his countrymen to a sense of their danger and en use them to resist the aggressions of the powerful and energetic Macedonian. Philip was now requested by the Thebans to interfere in their behalf in the Sacred War raging between them and the Phocians. He marched into Phocis, destroyed its cities, and sent many of its inhabitants as colonists to Thrace. In 339 B. C. the Amphictyonic council, composed of several Grecian states, declared war against the Locrians, and next year it appointed Philip commander-in-chief of all their forces. The Athenians were at last alarmed at his approach into Greece in this capacity, and formed a league with

the Thebans against him; but their united forces were utterly defeated at Chæronea in 338 B. C. ; and Philip was now master of all Greece. _ Deputies from the different states met in congress at Corinth, and, after resolving to make war on the Persian king, chose Philip as leader. Philip was busily engaged in preparations for this great enterprise, when he was assassinated at a festival to celebrate the marriage of his daughter with Alexander of Epirus, 336 B. C, and was succeeded by Alexander the Great. Philip was faithless in the observance of treaty obligations and utterly unscrupulous as to the means by which he gained his end; but his great ability both as a king and a soldier is conceded by all historians. See Alexander the Great, Demosthenes and Macedonia.

Philip II (king of Spain), son of Charles V, was born at Valladolid, May 21, 1527. In 1543 Philip married Mary of Portugal, and their son was ill-fated Don Carlos. Eight years after her death he married Queen Mary of England, who was several years his senior. After remaining in England with her about a year, he returned to Brussels. By the abdication of his father, Philip became sovereign of Spain, the two Sicilies, the Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Mexico, Peru and the Spanish possessions in Africa and the East Indies. Philip's marriage with Queen Mary was not a happy one; and after her death in 1558 he married Isabella of France. Philip was an intense bigot in religion, and put himself at the head of the Roman Catholic party in Europe; but the main object of his policy was to concentrate all power in himself and to suppress everything in the nature of free institutions within his dominions. He found the inquisition a very effective means of tyranny in Spain; but in the Netherlands a formidable revolt was organized, and, under the leadership of William the Silent, the seven provinces formed the union of Utrecht in 1579, and maintained a successful war against Spain until their independence was fully achieved, although William himself was assassinated at the instigation of Philip in 1584. Philip organized the Invincible Armada for the conquest of England, placing it under Alexander Far-nese, Prince of Parma; but only defeat and disaster resulted. (See Armada.) The one great triumph of Philip's reign was the naval victory of Lepanto, won by his half-brother, Don John of Austria, over the Turks. The desperate heroism of the Netherlanders and the defeat of the Armada, added to financial distress at home, embittered Philip's last years and he died of a lingering and loathsome disease at the Escorial, Sept. 13, 1598, being succeeded by Philip III, his son by a fourth wife. Philip possessed considerable ability, but li+tle political wisdom. Although he undertook