PHILIP V                                                 1469                             PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

many vast enterprises, scarcely any led to a profitable result. He was cold and austere without being virtuous. Although a bigot and a persecutor, he had no real respect for honor or religion. There is hardly a character in history whom historians have more unanimously united in condemning. See the histories of Prescott, Motley and Froude.

Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain, was born at Versailles, Dec. 19, 1683, his father being the Dauphin Louis, son of Louis XIV of Prance. In 1700 the Spanish crown was bequeathed to him by Charles II. He entered in 1701, and after a long struggle with Archduke Charles of Austria was left in possession of his throne by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. His queen dying next year, Philip soon married Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, the termagant (to-use Carlyle's phrase) who for 30 years disturbed the peace of Europe. Her dearest wish was to drive the Hapsburgs out of Italy in the interests of her sons by a former marriage; but all her efforts resulted only in securing the two Sicilies. Spain joined the coalition against Maria Theresa of Austria (q. v.) ; and Elizabeth's younger son was at first successful in conquering the Milanese; but as soon as the Silesian War was closed by the Peace of Dresden, the Austrian queen sent her troops into Italy and drove out the Spaniards. At this crisis Philip, who had been in mental stupor for years, died at Madrid, July 9 1746.

Philip, sachem of the Wampanoag tribe of Indians, was the second son of Massasoit (q. v.), who for nearly 30 years had been the stanch ally of the Pilgrim settlers. In 1661 Philip succeeded his elder brother and kept the treaties of his father for several years. But at length, goaded by the encroachments of the whites, he formed a confederation of tribes, amounting to nearly 10,000 warriors, and in 1675 King Philip's War broke out. The Indians surprised and murdered many colonists, but were eventually overcome, and in 1676 Philip himself was captured and slain in Rhode Island. Afterward his body was drawn and quartered and his head was exposed on a gibbet at Plymouth for a number of years. See Entertaining History of King Philip's War and Irving's Sketch-Booh.

Philip, John Woodward, an American naval officer, was born at New York City, Aug. 26, 1840. In 1861 he graduated from the Naval Academy, and served as midshipman on board of various vessels blockading the Gulf harbors and in the James River fleet. He became a lieutenant in 1862; lieutenant-commander in 1866; commander in 1874, captain in 1889; and commodore in 1898. He was wounded at Stone River during the Civil War, During the years of peace he made a tour of the

world in command of Woodruff Scientific Expedition (1877). He was in command of the Texas during the fight off Santiago Bay in the Spanish-American War; and his request of his men not to cheer over their dying foes excited widespread commendation. He was a very earnest Chrsitian soldier, and led his sailors and marines in prayer at the close of the fight above mentioned. He for a time was in command of the North Pacific squadron, and later assigned to the command of the Navy-Yard at Brooklyn, where he died, with the rank of rear-admiral,'June 30, 1900.

Philippine Islands, The, an archipelago in the Pacific southeast of Hong-Kong, China, ' were discovered by Magellan in 1521. He was slain a few months later upon one of the smaller islands during the progress of one of the numerous tribal wars. Spain attempted to make good her claim to these lands a few years afterwards by sending out an expedition under Villabos, who named the islands in honor of the heir to the Spanish throne, afterward Philip II. In 15 65 Legaspi landed at Cebu with 400 troops. This force was increased three years later, and the conquest of the islands was accomplished. The first attempts at settlement were made upon Cebu; but in 1581 Manila was founded, and it has since continued to be the chief city. The islands remained a possession of Spain until ceded to the United States. Previous to this a revolt of the Filipinos under the leadership of Aguinaldo (5. v.) occurred. In January, 1898, peace was agreed upon by a compact between the Spanish authorities and Aguinaldo, the.terms of which do not appear to have been kept by either party. In April, 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States, the first serious encounter being the battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898, when the Spanish squadron under Admiral Montojo was completely destroyed. At the close of this war Spain (by treaty on Dec. 10, 1898) ceded the Philippines to the United States, $20,000,000 being paid to Spain. Meantime Aguinaldo proclaimed the Philippines an independent republic and thus brought on a conflict between his followers and the United States, which was terminated only by his capture in April, 1901.

By act of Congress (1902) a complete civil government was established and the office of military governoi and military rule were terminated The government is composed of a civil governoi and seven commissioners, of whom four are Americans and three Filipinos. Theie are 39 provinces, each with a governoi and supreme court of seven judges and fourteen judicial districts. As provided by act of Congiess, a general election of delegates to the Philippine Assembly was held in 1907; the new assembly was chosen on July 20 and was opened on Oct. 10 of that year. Manila, upon the island