of Luzon, with a population of 219,941, is the seat of government.

The islands and islets number about 3,000. The largest are Luzon (40,969 square miles) and Mindanao (36,292 square miles) ; and the total area of habitable islands, including the Sulus, is estimated to be about 127,853 square miles. There are about 2 5,000 Americans and Europeans and about 100,000 Chinese. The inhabitants mostly are of the Malayan race, but there are some tribes of Negritos. The population as shown by census of 1903 is 7,635,426, of whom 647,740 belong to wild tribes.

Climate. The climate is one of the most favorable to be found in the tropics. At Manila the mercury during July and August rarely goes below 790 or above 85°. During the year the extremes are said to be 6i° and 970, with an annual mean of 8i°.

Resources. ' Although agriculture is the chief industry, only a small part of the arable land is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and with improved methods the cultivatable area is capable of sustaining a much larger population. The Philippine Bureau of Agriculture is carrying on investigations respecting the cultivation and improvement of the islands' products, and experimental farms have been established from which improved varieties of seeds, roots and plants are distributed. Attention is also given to combating destructive insects, methods of curing tobacco, the improvement of live-stock etc. The Philip pine Forestry Bureau provides plans and rules for the protection and working of the wide forests of valuable timber, gum and dyewood. Not much has yet been done towards the development of the mineral resources, but preliminary work, prospecting etc. have been actively taken up. Lignite and iron are found in several provinces, and gold in all the larger islands. Silver, platinum, copper, lead, manganese, sulphur, petroleum and gypsum are also found The one chief product is hemp; sugar, coffee, cocoanuts, tobacco and indigo following in the order named. The value of imports in 1906 was $26,403,768 and of exports $32,-642,892.

Education. Education is under the direction of a secretary of public instruction. The islands are divided into 35 educational divisions, each under a superintendent, with a superior school-board and local board. There are over 800 American teachers, 400 Filipino teachers on insular pay and about 4,000 Filipino teachers paid by the municipalities. English is taught in all the public schools, of which there are over 3,000. A school for training teachers has been opened, and industrial and trade schools established. The University of Manila has several faculties, including one of medicine. There are over 8,000 miles of telegraph lines and cable. A railway 120 miles long has been built be-

tween Manila and Dagupan, and there are two branch lines.

Philippopolis (fl'p-pŏp'o-ls), capital of eastern Rumelia or southern Bulgaria (q. v.), on the navigable Maritza, no miles from Adrianople. It manufactures silk, cotton, tobacco and leather. Population 45,707, of whom half are Bulgarians, the remainder being Turks, Greeks etc. Philippopolis was occupied by the Russians in 1878, and in 1885 a revolution broke out here which led to the incorporation of eastern Rumelia (q. v.) with Bulgaria.

Philistines (fl-s'tm) (strangers), a people mentioned in the Bible as in frequent conflict with the Jews. They lived on the coast of the Mediterranean to the southwest of Judea. It has been asserted that they originated in prehistoric Crete. Their first appearance as enemies of Israel was during the period of the Judges. They were subject to five princes who ruled over Gaza, Ashdod, Askalon, Gath and Ekron. In the time of Eli they were so powerful that they even carried away the ark. Saul, the first king of Israel, was engaged in frequent conflicts with them, and both he and his sons fell in a disastrous battle against them at Gilboa. David won many victories over them, and under Solomon most of their territory was annexed, and they continued in subjection to Judah until the reign of Ahaz, three hundred years later, when they revolted and made great havoc in the territory of Judah. Hezekiah, the son and successor of Ahaz, however, subdued them and brought them to obedience, without the aid of the Egyptians. Under the later kings of Judah they appear, from the menaces of the prophets, to have brought many calamities on the Jews — if they did not recover their full independence. In the time of the Maccabees the Philistines were Syrian subjects, and in the time of Herod the Great they appear no longer to have an existence as a separate race or nation, even the name of their country being merged in that of Palestine.

Phil'lips Ex'eter Academy, preparatory school in Exetei, N. H., for boys of exceptionally high standing. It was founded in 1781 by Dr. John Phillips, a wealthy and philanthropic citizen of Ėxeter. It was founded on a broad foundation and has been manned by men who were capable of inspiring pupils with a desire for the best in life. Few institutions even of higher learning have attracted students from a wider field. Among its matriculants in 1906-7 were students from thirty-three states, the District of Columbia, Hawaii and five foreign countries. Its growth during the last decade was marked. Attendance increased from 192 to 443, buildings from 9 to 17, instructors from 10 to 21 and the annual income from $37,000 to $150,000. It is distinctively a preparatory school. About seventy-five