the pontificate of Urban VIII (1623-44) in Monte del Grano near Rome. It was purchased by Sir William Hamilton in 1770, and a few years later by the Portland family, who deposited it in the British Museum. The vase was broken into pieces by a lunatic in 1845, but the fragments were skillfully united. It is ten inches in height and the finest known specimen of an ancient, cameo-cut glass.

Por'to Rico (re'ko), a West India island formerly belonging to Spain, first settled by Ponce de Leon in 1510. It is about 100 miles in length and 36 in width, and is traversed east and west by ranges of mountains, from whose bases rich tracts of soil extend to the sea on all sides. Its estimated area is 3,606 square miles. Rain falls in much greater abundance on the northern than on the southern part of the island. The chief towns are San Juan the capital (32,048), Mayaguez (15,187) and Ponce (27,952). The population of Porto Rico was 1,118012 in 1910. There were 589,426 whites and 363,817 colored. Of the latter 304,352 were mestizos, 59,390 negro and 75 Chinebe. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898 Porto Rico was ceded to the United States.

Government. According to the decision of the United States Supreme Court Porto Rico is a territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States within the revenue-clause of the constitution. The island was given a civil government by Act of Congress of May i, 1900. The governor is appointed by the president of the United States. The upper house consists of eleven members, six of whom are heads of departments, five are natives, and all appointed by the president. The lower house consists of 35 delegates, elected by the people for two years. The franchise is exercised under a property and educational qualification. By proclamation of the president on July 25, 1901, free trade was established between Porto Rico and the United States.

Education. In 1899 over 83 per cent, of the population could neither read nor write. A school-system was organized in that year; a general board of education and local school-boards were formed; suitable accommodations were required to be provided ; and school-attendance was made compulsory. In 1901 there were 733 schools open, with 768 teachers (many of them from the United States) and 33,802 pupils in attendance. There are a high school at San Juan, a normal school at Rio Piedras and a system of agricultural schools.

Commerce. The exports for the year ending June 30, 1907, amounted to $26,964,617, of which $22,065,245 went to the United States. The imports from the United States were $25,320,465 and from foreign countries $3,580,887.

Resources. So far as developed, the chief products of the island are agricultural, including coffee, sugar, tobacco, bananas, pineapples, oranges and vegetables. Some cotton is exported. With improved methods the yield can be largely increased. There is but little mining, though there are deposits of gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, mercury, platinum and nickel. There also are marble, gypsum and phosphates.

Ports'mouth, N. H., a city, on Piscataqua River, three miles from its mouth, and on the eastern division of the Boston and Maine Railroad. The United States Navy-Yard is on the opposite bank of the river, with facilities for docking the largest ships afloat and well-equipped shops and engineering plants. The city possesses the deepest harbor on the coast and important coastwise trade. The harbor never freezes. Portsmouth contains a superior line of stores and several important manufacturing interests. It is rich in historical memories, and possesses fine buildings and parks. The first settlement was made in 1623 by London merchants. The original charter, adopted in 1849, was amended in 1905 giving the city practically a new charter. The government is vested in a mayor and a council. The council elects heads of departments and subordinate officials. The city has waterworks, an electric-light plant and an electric street-car system, owning and operating the first. Population 11,269.

Portsmouth, O., county-seat of Scioto County, stands on the Ohio at the mouth of Scioto River, 100 miles above Cincinnati. It has iron-foundries, rolling-mills and manufactories, some of their products being stoves, ranges, cars, furniture, wagons and carriages, boots, shoes etc. The educational institutions are the public and parochial schools, several private schools, a public library and Peebles Reading-Room, besides charitable institutions and churches. The city owns and operates the electric-light and waterworks. Portsmouth has the service of three railroads and of steamboats to all Ohio River ports. Population 23,481

Portsmouth, the chief naval arsenal of Great Britain, is on the southwestern shore of Portsea Island, at the entrance to Portsmouth Harbor and opposite Gosport, with which it is connected by a steam-ferry. The fortifications comprise, on the landward side, the outer line of the Portsdown forts and the Hillsea lines; to seaward, the Spitheadforts. Portsmouth Harbor, only about 400 yards wide at its entrance, expands into a spacious basin, extending inland about four miles and having a breadth of three miles along its northern shore. This harbor is situated in the middle of the channel, close to the anchorage of Spithead, where 1,000 ships of the line may ride without danger or inconvenience, and is under the shelter of the Isle of Wight. Opposite to it is