QUININE

1576

QUITO

that he could die content if he had an hour's talk with Samuel Adams or Joseph Warren. See Life by his son, Josiah Quincy (1820).

Quinine ( kwl'-nln or kw-nēn'), is an alkaloid in the bark of numerous species of cinchona and in one species of remigia, its yield varying from ij to 8 per cent. Quinine is obtained from the powdered bark by treating it with lime; extracting the mixture with alcohol ; neutralizing with an acid so as to obtain a salt of quinine; and finally purifying the product. Preparations of quinine, especially the sulphate, are largely used in medicine.                   1

Quinoa (kw-n'), a valuable food-plant, a native of Chile and the high tableland of Mexico. In these countries it is much cultivated for its seed, which forms a principal food of the inhabitants. The meal made from some varieties of the seed has a somewhat peculiar flavor, but is very nutritious, and is made into porridge and cakes.

Quintil'ian, M. Fabius Quintilianus, was born about 35 A. D., at Calagurris in Spain, and attended the lectures of Dom-itius Afer in Rome. After 59 A. D., however, he revisited Spain, whence he returned to Rome in the train of Galba and began to practise as a pleader in courts, gaining considerable reputation. He was more distinguished as a teacher of oratory, however, and his instructions were eagerly sought, his pupils including the younger Pliny and the two grand-nephews of Dom-itian, who conferred the title and insignia of consul. After 20 years of labor as advocate and teacher, he retired to private life and died about 95 A. D. His reputation rests securely on his great but mutilated Institutes of Oratory, a complete system of rhetoric. It was written after he had ceased to be a teacher, and was the fruit of two years' labor, as he says in his preface. The best edition of Quintilian's work is that of Burmann. There also are special editions of the tenth book, a masterly criticism of classic literature that ranks Quintilian with the great critics.

Quipu (k'po), the language of knotted cords which was used by the Incas of Peru previous to the conquest by the Spaniards. A series of knotted strings was fastened at one end to a stout cord ; the other end hung free. This was used for the purpose of conveying commands to officers in the provinces and even for recording historic events.

Quito (ke'to), the capital of Ecuador, lies almost on the equator, on the east of a great plateau, at the foot of a volcano and at an elevation of 9,351 feet. The appearance of Quito is picturesque, with beautiful mountains on every side. This, with its clear, healthy and temperate climate maintaining perpetual spring, makes it one of the most charming cities of South America; yet the abrupt changes from the hot sun of midday to the chills of evening make pneumonia and diseases of the chest very common. Public buildings include a university, seminary, institute of science, observatory, museum, library of 20,000 volumes, cathedral, archbishop's palace, city-hall, capitol, a penitentiary, hospital, lunatic asylum, retreat for lepers, a score of churches and three times as many monasteries. Most of these are in a dilapidated condition, for which it is hard to find any reason but laziness ; for they retain their lands and revenues, and the offerings of the faithful, who nearly all are Indians are as constant as ever. Indeed, Quito is the paradise of priests and church bells jangle all day long; for Ecuador is the pope's most faithful province and the one state which refuses to recognize the unity of Italy and the condition which resulted from the occupation of Rome. There are only two or three good stores and no hotels; the daily market in the square before the monastery of San Francisco is the general purchasing place; and the religious houses serve for hotels. Quito was founded in 1534, and has suffered frequently from earthquakes. Population about 80,000, mainly Indians and Mestizos (half-Spanish or Creole and half-Indian). See Ecuador.