RAMESES                                                  1585                                                      RAMSEY

Otkmar, Moths and Wanda. She died on Jan. 25, 1908.

Rameses {ram'-sez), Egyptian monarchs of whom two, the first and the second, were especially famous. It is usual to identify the warrior-king Rameses II with the Pharaoh who oppressed the children of Israel so sorely and Rameses III with the Pharaoh of the Exodus, although there is considerable difficulty in the identification. The mummy of Rameses II was found in 1881 and that of Rameses III in 1886.

Ramession or Ramesseum. The Rames-sion was built by Rameses the Great in the 15th century B. C. on the opposite bank of the Nile from Luxor and Karnak, and nearly as large as the former. It is the only temple entirely constructed under the reign of one king. The Ramession is in a bad state of ruin, and very little has been left even of its material ; but it still is quite easy to trace the general plan. Two great pylons flank the main entrance; the two are 226 feet wide but the upper part is gone. This opens into a peristylar court which formerly had a double colonnade on two sides at least. A colossal statue, 56 feet high, of Rameses seated is at the further end facing backs of pylons. Another court, grander than the first, with porticos to left and right, each having a double range of columns, is adjoining. The entrance to this is effected through a grand doorway. Osirid figures, 31 feet high, formed a row on each side of the entrance; many still remain. Next to this is a vestibule which is reached by three flights of steps; this is ornamented by two colossal busts of Rameses and a row of columns. From this three large doorways of black granite lead to the hypostyle hall, which measures 136 feet wide and 103 feet long. Forty-eight columns support the roof, with the mode of lighting the same as that at Karnak. The ceiling is painted blue with golden stars. Beyond the hall are wide chambers, each having a roof supported by eight columns. Back of these are smaller chambers with only four columns. Around these are gathered still smaller rooms which have been suggested by some as having been used by students that came to the Ramession to study. There is supposed to have been a library here also.

Ramillies, (ra'm'ye'), a village of Brabant, Belgium, is memorable as the place near which, on May 23, 1706, the French forces under Villeroy and the elector of Bavaria were defeated by Marlborough. This victory compelled the French to give up the whole of the Spanish Netherlands.

Ram'say, David, an American physician and historian, was born in Lancaster County, Pa. April 2, 1749, and, after graduating at Princeton College, studied medicine and entered upon practice at Charleston, S. C, two or three years before the Revolutionary War. After the capture of Charleston by the

British he was kept as a hostage at St. Augustine for nearly a year; and at the close of the war was chosen a member of the Continental Congress. Besides medical essays and other works he published a History of South Carolina and a History of the American Revolution. Dr. Ramsay was a member of the South Carolina legislature for several years before his death, which took place at Charleston, S. C, May 8, 1815.

Ramsay, Sir William, K. C. B..F. R. S., professor of chemistry at University College, London, was born in 1852 at Glasgow, Scotland, and early distinguished himself by researches into the constituents of air while acting as professor of chemistry in University College at Bristol, of which he became principal in 1881. Six years later he was appointed to his present post, where he has with great success pursued his investigations and researches, the practical fruit of which led him in 1893, m conjunction with Lord Rayleigh, to discover the element argon and, later, the gaseous element helion. Sir William also detected in the air the heretofore unknown elements to which he has given the Greek names of neon, krypton and xenon; he has, moreover, shown the transformation of the radium emanation into helium, neon and, probably, argon and the more than likely change of copper into lithium and sodium. In 1904 Sir William was awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry. Besides issuing several textbooks on chemistry, Sir William has translated Beilstein's Qualitative Analysis and published a treatise on The Gases of the Atmosphere, with a history of their discovery.

Ramsey (ram'zi), Alexander, United States senator and governor of Minnesota, was born near Harrisburg, Pa., Sept. 8, 1815, where, after studying law, he began to practise in 1839, and took part in the following year in the Harrison and Tyler campaign. In 1843 he was elected to Congress in the Whig interest ; from 1849 to 1853 he was governor of Minnesota Territory; and again served Minnesota from 1859 to 1863, when it had become a state. He at one time also was mayor of St. Paul, and from 1863 to 1875 was United States senator. In 1879 he became secretary of war in the Hayes administration. He afterwards acted as a member of the Utah and other com-

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ALEXANDER RAMSEY