RANCHING

1586

RANJIT SINGH

missions. His death occurred on April 22,

x9°3-

Ranch'ing, the business of cattle-raismg in the unsettled regions of the west. The name is derived from rancho, Spanish for mess or messroom. The special feature of ranching is that cattle are kept in a half-wild state, being allowed to range over a great deal of ground, such pasture as they can find being their only food. The life of ranchmen, generally called cowboys, is not so wild and free as it once was, but still has great charms for many different classes of young men. The term ranch has come to be applied throughout the west not merely to stockranges, but to all kinds of farms.

Rand, Theodore Harding, D.C.L., was born at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, on Feb. 8, 1835. Devoting his life to education, he organized the free, public schools both of Nova Scotia and of New Brunswick, and has been principal of Woodstock College and chancellor of McMaster University, in the founding of the latter of which he was largely interested.

Ran'dall, James Ryder, poet-journalist, was born in Baltimore, Md., in 1839. He was the author of numerous poems, collected in one volume in 1908, but the most famous of his compositions is Maryland, My Maryland. This war-poem was written in the heat of passion in the Civil War, and its success was instantaneous. Dr. Holmes wrote to Randall that he wished he might have been able to do for his own Massachusetts what Randall had done for Maryland. He died in the early part of 1908.

Randall, Samuel J., American statesman, was born at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 10, 1828, and, after spending a number of years in mercantile business in his native city, was elected to Congress as a Democrat in October, 1862. He held this position — being re-elected every two years — to his death, which took place at Washington, D. C, April 13, 1890. After the death of Speaker Kerr m 1876 Randall was elected to fill the unexpired term. He was also chosen speaker of the house in 1877 and 1879. Throughout his congressional career Mr. Randall's ability and integrity were conceded by men of all parties, and he was held in the highest esteem by his fellow-congressmen. He was a Democrat who upheld protection.

Ran'dolph, Edmund J., an American statesman, was born at Williamsburg, Va., Aug. 10, 1753, and after legal study was admitted to the Virginia bar. In 1776 he helped to frame the constitution of Virginia, and became its first attorney-general. He was governor from 1786 to 1788, and was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of the United States. In 1789 he entered Washington's cabinet as attorney-general, and in 1794 was ap-

pointed secretary of state to succeed Jefferson. He resigned in the following year on account of some misunderstanding with President Washington and his colleagues in reference to the Jay treaty. He died in Virginia, Sept. 13, 1813.

Randolph, John, of Roanoke, was born at Cawsons, Va., June 2, 1773. He was a second cousin of Edmund Randolph, and boasted Pocahontas, the Indian princess, among his ancestors In 1799, though only 26, he entered Congress and continued a member, with the exception of two terms, until 1825, when he was chosen United States senator and occupied a seat for two years, during which he fought a duel with Henry Clay In 1830 he was appointed minister to Russia, but returned home next year, and in 1832 was once more elected to Congress. Before taking his seat, however, he died of consumption at Philadelphia, June 24, 1833, having provided in his will for the freedom of his slaves, some 300 in number. During Randolph's long public career he was distinguished alike for wit, loquence and eccentricity, and was more talked and written about than any public man of his timet many of his sallies and pungent utterances are still quoted.

Randolph, Peyton, was born in Virginia in 1723, and, after studying law in London, was appointed attorney-general of Virginia by the king in 1748. He was president of the continental congress when it first met at Philadelphia in 1774, but resigned on account of ill health. He again took his seat as a member when it reassembled on the Toth of May, 1775, but died at Philadelphia in October.

Rangoon', capital of Lower Burma, is situated on Rangoon River, about 20 miles from its entrance into the Gulf of Martaban. The present city is mostly of modern construction, having been built since the English took possession in 1852. The town extends along the left bank of the river, the docks being opposite, at the suburb of Da-la on the other side. A town has existed since the 6th century B. C, but it was called Dagon till taken by Alombra, the Burmese sovereign, toward the end of the 18th century. That prince rebuilt the place, and called it Rangoon. Thé foreign trade of'the city m 1906 exceeded 21 million rupees. Population 234,881.

Ran'jit Singh, founder of the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab of India, was born on Nov. 2, 1780, his father being a Singh chief and the head of one of the 12 military organizations of the Singhs or Sikhs. When he was six, his father died; and at an early age he began to show both a desire and capacity to rule. After the Emir of Afghanistan had given him the province of Lahore, he directed all his energies to founding a kingdom which should unite all the Singh provinces under his personal