RANKE                                                       1587                                             RASPBERRY

rule. This object, after many severe conflicts, he accomplished, thus becoming the ruler of an extensive territory, with a well-trained army of 70,000 men. In 1836 his army was totally defeated by the Afghans, but this defeat did not affect his power over any of the territory he had acquired, and his long reign was not disturbed by a single revolt. He died on June 27, 1839. He could neither read nor write, yet his signal ability and energy, united with a rare moderation, are without a parallel in Asiatic history.

Ranke (ran'ka), Leopold von, one of the greatest of German historians, was born at Wiehe, about half-way between Gotha and Halle, Dec. 21, 1795. Although he studied philology and theology at Berlin and Halle, his chief thoughts were directed to history, for the study and writing of which he possessed a rare genius. His historical works, nearly 50 in number, show remarkable skill in grouping events in proper order and placing them before the reader in so clear and vivid a manner, that he can readily see them in connection with all their causes and relations. Although Ranke was over 90 when he died, he could not have accomplished what he did, had he not been a man of such great industry and application, with a marvelous memory and excellent judgment as to the value of historical material. Though his style is not brilliant, it is sufficiently clear and interesting. Perhaps the most popular of his works is his History of the Popes, so brilliantly reviewed by Macaulay, in the Edinburgh Review of September, 1840. Ranke continued to lecture in the University of Berlin until 1872, and died there on May 23, 1886.

Ran'som, Matthew Whitaker, United States senator from 1872 to 1895 and United States minister to Mexico (1895-97), was born in Warren County, N. C, Oct. 8, 1826, and educated at the University of North Carolina. In 1852 he was elected attorney-general of his state, and from 1858 to 1862 was a member of its legislature. In the Civil War he ranged himself on the southern side, and from lieutenant-colonel he rose to be major-general, and was one of those who surrendered at Appomattox. He died in 1904.

Raphael (rf-el) or Raffaello Santi or Sanzio, called by his countrymen II Divino or The Divine, is ranked by universal opinion among the greatest of painters. He was born at Urbino, Italy, March 28, 1483, and after the death of his father, who was his first instructor, he was placed under Perugino (a. v.) the most distinguished painter of the period, who was then engaged on important works in Perugia. In 1504 Raphael visited Florence where he remained until 1508, and then went to Rome on the invitation of Pope Julius II (q.y.). His celebrated irescoes in the Vatican and

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RAPHAEL SANZIO

numerous important works were then commenced. The works of Raphael are generally divided into three classes : his first style, when under the influence of Perugino's manner; his second, when he painted at Florence from 1504 to 1508; and his third style, shown in the works executed by him after he settled in Rome. Each style has its peculiar features and devoted admirers. An admirable example of the first style is the noble Betrothal of the-Virgin. The great pictures of his second period are the Ansidei Madonna, the Grand-Ducal or Pitti Madonna and the Madonna with the Gold-finch. The supreme creations of his third manner are the wall-paintings in the Vatican, the Sistine Madonna and The Transfiguration. Those who incline to art employed in the service of religion prefer the first manner, as embodying purity and religious feeling. His 'ast manner, perfected when the taste for classical art and learning was excited by the discovery of numerous works of the classic period, is held by many as correctly embodying the highest art; white his Florentine style is especially admired by some as showing his powers freed from the imitation of Perugino and as yet unaffected by the conventionalism of classic art. In each of these different styles he has left works of great excellence. He died at Rome, April 6, 1520.

Rap'pahan'nock, a river of Virginia, rises in the Blue Ridge of the Alleghany Mountains and flows southeasterly into Chesapeake Bay, its total length being about 250 miles. The chief branch is the Rapidan; and these rivers were the scenes of desperate battles during the Civil War, the most noted being Burnside's repulse at Fredericksburg in the winter of 1862-3.

Raspberry Xraz'ber-ry), species of Rubus, the bramble genus and a member of the rose family. Associated in the genus with raspberries are blackberries and dewberries. The original garden raspberries are R. idœus, natives of Europe, but now said to be almost out of cultivation in the United States. The parent of the black raspberries of the gardens is R. occidentalis, common in this country, while the parent of some of the red raspberries is R. stHgosus, common in the United States, especially northward. Numerous garden varieties have been cultivated from these and other wild species, i chiefly by hybridizing. Some wild raspber-