REDBREAST

1595

RED JACKET

The fourteenth amendment, having been ratified by the requisite number of states, was officially declared a part of the constitution on July 28, 1868 The fifteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States was adopted by Congress in February of 1869, and was submitted to the states for ratification. It provided that "the right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude." Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia, which had delayed action required, were re-admitted in 1870.

During all this period affairs in the south were far from peaceful. The slaves of yesterday were now citizens and voters. In their utter ignorance they often became the tools of corrupt and designing men. Many of these, known as carpet-baggers, came from the north and took advantage of the situation to further their own selfish interests. To the whites of the south conditions were intolerable; resistance was inevitable and often took the form of acts of violence. The state authorities could maintain themselves only by invoking the aid of the general government. But the interference of the Federal government in state affairs has ever been viewed with distrust. At length a better feeling prevailed. The leaders of the south asserted that if left alone they would carry out in good faith the provisions of the constitution and laws of Congress. The disabilities of the ex-Confederates were removed by Congress in 1872, and finally President Hayes in 1877 withdrew the Federal troops from the southern capitals and announced the policy of Federal noninterference in state affairs. This may be regarded as the close of the reconstruction period. See Carpet-B aggers.

Red'breast, a bird belonging to the family of the Old World warblers. It is well-known in the British Isles, and is called robin-redbreast; but, it, should be noted, this is not the American robin, which is a thrush.'It is about 5| inches long, olive brown above, with the throat and upper breast a reddish orange. The abdomen is dull white. It occurs solitary or in pairs, and rears two or three broods a season near the ground, building a nest of dry leaves, moss, grass, hair and feathers. The eggs, usually five in number, are grayish-white speckled with rusty red. The English robin-redbreast is quite a sociable bird; it dwells close to the haunts of man and is fond of household damties. Its song is sweet and plaintive.

Red-Cross Societies, a federation of relief societies in the different countries acting under the Geneva convention. The original aim of the societies was to ameliorate the condition of the sick and wounded in time

of war. They had their origin in an agitation begun by Jean Dunant, a philanthropic citizen of Geneva, who in 1862 published an account of the suffering he had seen on the battle-field of Solferino, June 24th, 1859. He attributed much of the suffering to the lack of provision for the proper care of the sick and wounded and suggested that societies be formed in the different countries to collect supplies and train nurses etc. in times of peace to co-operate with and assist the regular surgical corps in time of war. The Society of Public Utility in Geneva took up the suggestion. In the following year an international conference was held in Geneva, at which sixteen nations were represented. A provisional program was agreed upon and in August, 184, a more formal, diplomatic congress of representatives from the same nations was held, at which was signed what is now known as the Geneva convention. A red cross upon a white field was adopted by the congress as the exclusive badge of" all societies formed in accordance with the principles of the convention. The first international conference of Red Cross societies was held in Paris in 1867. Red Cross societies were first formed in the United States in 1881, and the Geneva Convention was first ratified by the United States government in 1882. Miss Clara Barton, President of the Red Cross societies m the United States, suggested that they be prepared to render relief to the suffering in times of great calamities, as fires, floods, famine, pestilence etc. as well as in times of war, and her suggestion received the unanimous sanction of the National and International Committees. The Hague peace-conferenoe in 1899 ratified the proposal of 1867 that the provisions of the societies be extended to naval warfare. While international conferences of the Red Cross societies have been held and the Society at Geneva serves as a Central Committee by which an international bulletin is published and through which all international communications are made, the societies are not really international. They are national and independent, each governing itself and making its own laws according to the genius of its nationality and needs. All societies throughout the world have a common badge and a common aim, and sustain mutual relations to the convention. The American society has furnished relief amounting to several millions of dollars besides inestimable personal service. The society, in its own vaults, always accessible, night and day, keeps funds sufficient for any sudden emergency.

Red Jack'et, a chief,of the Seneca Indians was born near Seneca Lake, N. Y. in 1752, his original name being Sagoyewatha and the name of Red Jacket being given to him on account of a scarlet jacket presented to him by a British officer during the Revolutionary War. He was an active ally of the