REDLANDS

1596

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British in that contest; but in the War of 1812 he rendered valuable service to the United States in the operations on the Canadian frontier. During his last years he lost much ^f his prestige and influence by his intemperate habits. He died on Seneca Reservation, near Buffalo, in 1830.

Red'lands, Cal., a city sixty miles from Los Angeles, in San Bernardino County. It is at the base of San Bernardino Mountains in a famously beautiful and fertile region. Fire clay exists in this section, and the oranges are especially fine. Other fruits, barley and wheat are grown, and the important trade consists chiefly of raisins, oranges, lumber, building-stone and fire-clay products. Redlands has an admirable school-system, a library, all modern improvements and the service of two railroads. Population 10.449.

Red Riv'er, the lowest western branch of the Mississippi, rises in the northern part of Texas, near the New Mexico border, and flows eastward as the boundary line between Texas and Oklahoma, thence southeast through Arkansas and Louisiana, entering the Mississippi a little over 300 miles from its mouth. It receives its name from the color of the sediment with which it is loaded during high water. Its total length, on account of its winding course, is 1,500 miles; and it receives numerous branches, the Washita, the Negro and the Little Wichita being the most important. It is navigable during seven or ight months of the year to Shreve-port, La., 300 miles from its mouth.

Red River of the North rises in a cluster of lakes in western Minnesota and flows northward, separating Minnesota from North Dakota, into Manitoba, and emptying into Lake Winnipeg, about 600 miles from its source.

Red River Rebellion. Upon the extinguishment of the claims of the Hudson Bay company and the taking over of the Northwest Territories in 1870, the 12,000 inhabitants of the Red River settlement found themselves ignored Of the several factions, the whites, 2 000 strong, and the half-breeds of Scotch and Indian origin, found themselves overruled by the Metis 01 French half-breeds, with the assistance of tiie Fenians who had already made trouble and a number of American immigrants bent on annexation. Louis Riel, upon the coming of William McDougall, the lieutenant-governor, seized Fort Garry in October 1869, and had McDougall turned back at the frontier. Forming a provisional government, Riel had a young man shot for treason against his rule, and this murder set the country aflame. Of tne thousands volunteering for suppression ot the revolt, 700 were accepted, and these, with 500 regulars, the whole under the command of Colonel Garnet Wolseley, formed the Red River Expeditionary Force. Before they could reach Vort Garry in August, .1870, after toiling

through the wilderness, Archbishop Tachť, acting as pacificator, succeeded in inducing the rebels to lay down their arms, and the little army found no opposition, the leaders having fled across the. border. (See Riel, Louis.

Red Sea or Arabian Łulf is ah inlet of the Indian Ocean, stretching northwest from the Strait of Bab-el-Man deb (by which it communicates with the Gulf of Aden) to the Isthmus of Suez, by which it is separated from the Mediterranean Its length is from about 20 miles next the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb to about 200 miles in the central portion, the northern portion being divided by the Sinai Peninsula into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah. The former is 180 miles in length and from 10 to 15 in breadth. From the earliest times the Red Sea has been a great highway of commerce between India and the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, being traversed successively by Egyptians, Phoenicians, Hebrews and Arabs. It is first mentioned in Exodus on the occasion of the passage of the Israelites, which is supposed to have taken place a little south of the present town of Suez. The discovery of the route around the Cape of Good Hope turned the traffic with India into a different channel, but since the opening of Suez Canal in 1870 the Red Sea has more than regained its former importance as the highway of commerce between Europe and the east.

Red'start, a small bird common in the United States and, also, a similar bird com-

monin Europe, but belonging to a different family. The European redstart belongs to the family of Old-World warblers. It is slightly smaller than the American bird, being about five and one quarter inches long. It is dark-gray, with black throat, white forehead and rusty-red breast, sides and tail In some parts of England it is called the fire-tail. The American redstart belongs to the family of New-World warblers It is about five and one half inches long, its general plumage a glossy black with salmon or orange-red on wings and tail, breast and lower part white. This bird is seldom seen on the ground; it perches on trees from which it is continually flitting to catch insects on the wing, and gleams in and out among the greenery like a bit of fire. It migrates early in May and in September, is found as far west as the Pacific coast and north to upper Canada. Its note is sweet

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