REFRIGERATION

1598

REGNAULl

mation began what is known as Modern-Europe, while the epoch that preceded it bears the equally distinctive name of Middle Ages. From 8oo, when Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, western Europe had been under complete subjection to the church, and many abuses had arisen. The revival of learning and the discovery of the New World had also awakened a spirit of independence in men's minds. It only required a spark to kindle the slumbering agitation into a definite flame. This was supplied by the sale of indulgences under Pope Leo X. Once started, the Reformation made such rapid progress that the national churches of Britain, Sweden, Norway, Holland and many parts of Germany and Switzerland separated from Rome, while in other countries, as Hungary and France, the same movement detached large portions of the people from the Roman faith, without separating the church itself from the papacy. By the middle of the 16th century it seemed as if the revolution would carry everything before it. At the beginning of the Reformation the authorities of the Roman church did not realize the extent of the danger which threatened it, regarding the movement merely one of the many discussions and schisms to which the church had always been more or less subject; but when they saw the revolt spreading into country after country and taking so firm a hold on the minds both of rulers and people, their eyes were opened and they proceeded to the repair of the breaches that had been made with all the zeal and energy of which they were capable. The Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540, supplied an army of enthusiasts whose policy and devotion saved Rome from dissolution. By the decrees of the Council of Trent (1547-63) the church reaffirmed its ancient doctrines and traditions; and a succession of popes during the latter half of the 16th century carried out with zeal the policy marked out for them by the Jesuits. To quote the language of Lord Macaulay: "Two reformations were pushed on at once with equal energy and effect — a reformation of doctrine in the north and a reformation of manners and discipline in the south. ... In the Order of Jesus was concentrated the quintessence of the Catholic spirit; and the history of the Order of Jesus is the history of the great Catholic reaction." Thus the middle of the lŏth century saw the tide of the revolution checked; and by the close of the century Europe was divided between the two forms of Christianity by almost the same lines as exist at the present day. To quote again from Macaulay: "As Protestantism had driven Catholicism to the Alps and Pyrenees, so Catholicism rallied and drove back Protestantism, even to the German Ocean; nor has Protestantism in the course of 200 years been able to reconquer any portion of what

was then lost." See Calvin, Huss, Leo X, Luther and Wiclif. Consult Seebohm's , Era of the Protestant Revolution.

Refrig'era'tion is the art of producing cold by artificial means. The operation of cooling substances by some mechanical device has been practiced since very ancient times, but only in comparatively recent years have these devices been such as to enable the operation to be conducted profitably and on a commercial scale. Natural ice has always been a great source of refrigeration. In tropical countries such simple devices as porous jars placed in a draught have long been used for cooling the water with which the jars were filled. But in the highly developed civilization of recent times, with millions of people concentrated in cities sometimes hundred of miles from the sources of the food-stuffs desired, a limited supply of natural ice and simple refrigerating devices have not been sufficient, and necessity has given rise to many very elaborate and practical machines and refrigerating purposes. They are used for cold-storage warehouses, in which are stored for a time meats, fruits, vegetables and other perishable foodstuffs; for making artificial ice; on board ships; and for a large variety of manufacturing establishments. The various processes may be classed as (1) liquefaction, (2) vacuum, (3) compression, (4) absorption and (5) cold air. The third and fourth processes are used in the larger systems, while the others, especially the vacuum and cold-air processes, are used in smaller installations, as, for example, in domestic.icemaking and on shipboard. Refrigeration by machinery has a great advantage over refrigeration by means of natural ice for use in storage-warehouses, in that the temperature can be better regulated and often the required temperature can be kept at a less cost. Artificial ice has an advantage over natural ice in that it can be made hygienically pure by first sterilizing the water.

Regillus (r-jl'us), anciently a lake in Latium, southeast of Rome, probably in the lextinct volcanic crater of Corunfelle, which \y;as drained in the 17th century. It is celebrated in the semilegendary history of Rome as the scene of a great battle in 496 B. C. between the Romans and the Latins, in which the Latins were totally defeated.

Regi'na, the capital and seat of government for the Northwest Territories, is the dictributing point as well for a large area north and south. It is 1,885 ^eet above sea-level. Population about 3,000. .

R^gnault (rě-nyō'), Henri Victor, a French chemist and physicist distinguished especially for accurate measurements of a large number of physical constants. He was born on July 21,1811, at Aix-la-Chapelle, and died at Paris, Jan. 19, 1878. He was educated at the Polytechnic School and at the School of Mines in Paris. After a few