years of teaching chemistry at Lyons, he was called (1840) to the Polytechnic School as professor of chemistry, a position which he resigned a year later to accept the chair of physics at the Collège de France. It was here that he carried on his magnificent series of determinations of specific heat of various elements and compounds, and of the coefficient of expansion of various gases and liquids.

Regulus (rěg'ū-Zŭs), Marcus Atilius, a distinguished Roman, who was counsel for the first time in 267 B. C. Chosen consul a second time, in 256 B. C, he was sent in connection with his colleague at the head of 330 ships against the Carthaginians, whom he totally defeated off Heraclea Minor. The Romans then landed at Clypea, and for some time Regulus was victorious in every encounter, but at last he suffered defeat and was taken prisoner. He was kept in captivity for years, but when fresh reverses caused the Carthaginians to sue for peace they sent Regulus to Rome, on parole, in company with their own envoys. It is related that when Regulus came before the Roman senate he urged that body to reject all the proposals of the Carthaginians, even to an exchange of prisoners, but to prosecute the war against that country with the utmost vigor until it was utterly subdued. After persuading the senate to adopt this course, Regulus refused to break his parole, and, without even waiting to see his family, returned to Carthage, where he was put to death (? 250 B. C.) with the most terrible torture.

Reichs'an'stalt, the great national physical laboratory of Germany, established in 1888 and situated at Charlottenburg, a suburb of Berlin. The object of this institution is twofold. Its first aim is to carry out investigation of a purely scientific character; such problems, for instance, as the change of density in water which accompanies a change of temperature, the laws of radiation etc. Its second aim is to act as a standardizing bureau, to which makers can send thermometers, resistance-coils, standard cells etc. to be tested and certified. The two function are performed in different buildings. The first president of the Reichs-anstalt and tl^e controlling spirit in establishing it was Helmholtz, who conducted affairs from 1888 until his death in 1894. Kohlrausch su ceeded him.

Reid, Thomas, an eminent Scottish philosopher, was born on April 26, 1710, at Strachan, a country parish in Kincardine, where his father was minister. He took his degree of M.A. at Aberdeen College in 1726, and continued to act as librarian there for a n.rr.ber of years. In 1737 he was appointed minister to the parish church of New Machar, at which he labored with zeal and success until 1752, when he was appointed one of the professors of philosophy

in King's College, Aberdeen. In 1763 he was chosen to succeed Adam Smith as professor of .moral philosophy in the University of Glasgow, and henceforth devoted himself to mental and metaphysical speculation. In 1764 he published his Inquiry into the Human Mind; in 1785 his Philosophy of the Intellectual Powers; and in 1788 his Active Powers of the Human Mind. These treatises must always be looked upon as constituting the first complete and systematic work on the constitution of the human mind. He died at Glasgow, Oct. 7, 1796. See his Life by Dugald Stewart and McCosh's Scottish Philosophy.

Reid, Whitelaw, editor and diplomat, was born near Xenia, 0., Oct. 27, 1837, and graduated at Miami University, Oxford, 0., in 1856, soon after which he commenced his literary and journalistic career by becoming editor and proprietor of the Xenia News. When the Civil War broke out, Mr. Reid accepted a position on the staff of the Cincinnati Gazette, and as its war-correspondent won a national reputation by his remarkable clearness of description and accuracy of statement. In 1868 Mr. Reid accepted a position on the staff of the New York Tribune, then edited by the famous Horace Greeley; and, when Greeley resigned in 1872, Mr. Reid was chosen to fill his place. When Benjamin Harrison became president in 1889, Mr. Reid was appointed United States minister to France, and during the two years he held that office discharged its functions in such a manner as to reflect high honor upon himself. In 1897 he was special ambassador of the United States to England on the occasion of the jubilee of Queen Victoria, and again at the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. He was appointed ambassador to the Court of Saint James in 1905. He has published A Continental Union and Problems of Expansion.

Rein'deer or Car'ibou, a kind of deer found in the northern parts of Europe, Asia

and America. It can be distinguished from all its allies by the fact that both sexes have antlers. These are very large in comparison with the size of the animal, which is heavily built, with short limbs. The antlers have a brow-tine extending forward. In the American form the brow-tine of one side is aborted and the other is largely developed. The antlers, as well

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