RICHELIEU                                               I6l2                                                   RICHTER

penetration into nature, such power to raise and alarm the passions, few writers, either ancient or modern, have been, possessed of." Having drawn the ideal woman in Clarissa, Richarson proceeded a few years afterward to portray in Sir Charles Grandison the perfect man, "the man of true honor." The History of Sir Charles Grandison is considered a work of great ability, but not equal to Clarissa. Perhaps the most striking proof of Richardson's native genius is found in the facts that his method of telling a story by correspondence and his extreme diffuseness, either of which would be fatal to most writers, seem to give him only a firmer hold upon his readers and to increase and intensify the reality of his creations. See the essay of Mrs. Oliphant {Blackwood's Magazine, March, 1869).

Richelieu (rsh'ly), Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Duc de, was born at Paris, Sept. 5, 1585, and was educated for the military profession at the Collge de Navarre. In too7 he was consecrated bishop of Luon, and for some time devoted himself to the duties of his diocese; but, when a rupture occurred between King Louis XIII and the queen-mother some years later, Richelieu was very active in securing a reconciliation between them, thereby laying the foundation of the great influence he afterwards exercised. In 1622 Richelieu was made cardinal, and in 1624 became minister of state, a position which, in spite of all opposition, he held until the end of his life. At one time the king had determined on dismissing him, but in an interview Richelieu so worked upon the weakness and fear of the monarch, that his supremacy was fully established from that day. Several important results attended Richelieu's administration of French affairs'. The most important was the establishment of the absolute authority of the king, which during the feudal period was much abridged by the power of the nobility. By vigorous and often cruel and unscrupulous measures Richelieu broke down all the great nobles who opposed him, some of whom he brought to the scaffold, and sen-fenced others to lifelong imprisonment. When he died, there was scarcely any check upon the exercise of the king's prerogative. Another of his great enterprises was the overthrow of the Huguenot party as a political power, which he completely effected by the siege and capture of Rochelle in 1628. At the same time he secured for the Huguenots a measure of toleration; and, on the whole, he used his success in this conflict with great moderation. In his foreign policy, the chief object of which was to humble the power of Austria, he was equally successful. With this great end in view he allied himself with the German Protestants and even with the great champion of the Protestant cause, trusta vus Adolphus of Sweden He died at

Paris, while at the height of his power and authority, Dec. 4, 1642. See Le Cardinal Richelieu by Dussieux

Rich'mond, Ind., a city on the east fork of Whitewater River, 70 miles by rail from Cincinnati and about the same distance from Indianapolis. It was founded by the Society of Friends, who established Earlham College (coeducational) here in 1859. The public-school system is excellent. The city has important manufactures of agricultural implements and buggies. Population 22,324.

Richmond, Va., capital of Virginia and county-seat of Henrico County, is situated on the left bank of James River, about 150 miles from its mouth and 115 from Washington. The James supplies immense water-power; and the city contains nearly 1,000 manufacturing establishments, with a capital amounting to many million dollars. The chief of these are tobacco-factories, rolling-mills, iron-foundries, wagon and carriage works, lumber-mills and a railroad-car factory. In 1861 Richmond was selected as the capital of the southern Confederacy, and throughout the war was the objective point for all the aggressive movements of the eastern army of the Union, until the seizure of its lines of supply by General Grant compelled evacuation by General Lee on the night of April 2, 1865. A portion of the city was burned by the retreating Confederates; but the city has more than recovered her former beauty and prosperity. Her capitol was built after a model procured by Jefferson when in France, which was patterned after an ancient Roman temple. In its rotunda is a marble statue of Washington, taken from life. The city has an admirable public-school system and institutions of learning among them Virginia Mechanics' Institute, Richmond Female Seminary (P. E.), Hartshorn Memorial College (Baptist) for colored girls, St. Peter's Academy and Visitation Academy (R C), the Medical College of Virginia and University College of Medicine. Richmond has five public libraries, numerous beautiful churches, charitable institutions and hospitals. Population 127,62$.

Richmond, Leigh, English clergyman, author of J he Dairyman's Daughter, was born at Liverpool, Jan. 29, 1772, and while a child was lamed for life by leaping from a wall. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, and after filling the joint curacies of Brading and Yaverland in the Isle of Wight for a number of years, in 1805 he was appointed to the rectory of Turvey, Bedfordshire, where he died on May8, 1827. Besides The Dairyman's Daughter he wrote The Negro Servant and The Young Cottager. The three tracts have carried his name over the civilized world. Collected, they form The Annals of the Poor.

Richter (rk'tr), Jean Paul Friedrich (usually known by his pseudonym of Jean Paul), was born on March 21, 1763, at Wun-